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SH-HHHHH! A Quiet Change in Pest Management Resources
The Washington State University (WSU) Pesticide Information Center has undergone some changes in the last few months. The most noticeable are a name change and a new Web page. What was the Pesticide Information Center? What is the new WSPRS? Why should you care?
The Pesticide Information Center (PIC) has been a service to the people of Washington State for the past thirty years. It began on the Pullman campus, and moved to the Tri-Cities branch campus about a decade ago. In recent years, it has been allied with the Food and Environmental Quality Laboratory (FEQL), a state-mandated research and information body housed primarily at WSU Tri-Cities.
If you are reading this issue of Agrichemical and Environmental News, you are a direct beneficiary of PIC’s services, one of which is the monthly production of this newsletter. PIC has also served Pacific Northwest pesticide information needs by housing a complete collection of pesticide labels registered in Washington and Oregon and maintaining that collection electronically as the Pesticide Information Center On-Line (PICOL) label and tolerance databases (http://picol.cahe.wsu.edu/LabelTolerance.html). PIC has also been home to the Pesticide Notification Network (PNN) (http://www.pnn.wsu.edu), a targeted means of informing growers and commodity groups about changes in pest control regulations directly affecting their operations. The staff at PIC also performs reviews of documents issued by Washington State University personnel containing pesticide recommendations.
WSPRS stands for Washington State Pest Management Resource Service. The good news is that WSPRS is everything PIC was and more. WSPRS will continue to produce AENews, maintain the PICOL databases, operate the PNN, and perform pesticide review on WSU documents. But the name has changed to better reflect the full range of what we actually do in our office.
First, we have changed from “pesticide” to “pest management.” The change in name reflects a change in emphasis from an exclusive focus on traditional pesticides to a broader perspective encompassing the entire spectrum of pest management, including integrated pest management (IPM), biological and cultural control, organic pest management, and other tools and methods. This change reflects the shift that has been occurring across the country for a host of reasons including costs of farm inputs, mandates by Clean Water Act and Endangered Species programs, environmental activism, label restrictions on pesticide use, and realization that multi-pronged approaches to pest management are usually more durable.
Here at PIC/WSPRS, as elsewhere, the change has been gradual. A glance at this newsletter’s feature articles in recent years shows that we have been covering pest management topics in the broad sense for several years; we are, after all, Environmental as well as Agrichemical News. We have also been active in the production of Crop Profiles and Pest Management Strategic Plans (http://wsprs.wsu.edu/CropProfiles.html) in recent years. These documents detail the chemical, mechanical, cultural, and other means of pest management employed on various crops in our region, with Pest Management Strategic Plans focused specifically on transitioning away from heavy pesticide use toward sustainable strategies with low health and environmental impacts.
Finally, the shift from “pesticide” to “pest management” more accurately reflects the mandate of the Federal and Western Regional Pest Management Centers (http://www.pmcenters.org/index.cfm and http://www.wrpmc.ucdavis.edu/, respectively), from which we receive funding.
Second, we have changed from “information center” to “resource service.” The term “information center” implies that we are the source of all knowledge. Well, we would like to think so. We have perhaps even been accused of being know-it-alls. But the fact is that we aren’t really the SOURCE of the information we disseminate. But we do know WHERE TO FIND THE INFORMATION or how to connect with someone who is an expert in each area. We are truly a resource service, more akin to a group of savvy reference librarians than a gaggle of beaker jockeys. We KNOW the beaker jockeys and the trench diggers, the trainers and the number crunchers, and if someone out there is doing something you’re looking for related to pest management, we’ll put you in touch with them. If a homeowner wants information on how to control black spot on his garden roses, we’ll show him a link to the HortSense Web site. If an agricultural producer is considering going organic, we’ll connect her with the WSU and WSDA resources most likely to be of help in the transition. If a member of a county weed board wants to know about the life cycle of purple loosestrife, we’ll direct him to relevant research publications or put him in touch with a WSU weed specialist.
In short, we have our collective fingers on the pulses of Washington State pest management. We offer resources using a variety of media: databases, personal contacts, printed and electronic publications.
A cornerstone of the new WSPRS office is our brand-new Web page (http://wsprs.wsu.edu). From the WSPRS home page, you can connect with a wealth of resources within WSU research and extension programs in each of the different pest management areas, plus state and regional resources outside of the university. Think of it as a Washington State resource catalog. If you’re a linear (librarian-style) thinker, you can browse in any of the main categories (Diseases, Insect Pests, Weed Control, IPM, Organics, Pesticides, or Biological and Cultural Controls). If you’re in a hurry, or not exactly sure which category to use, try the search engine instead. (Look for the “How to Use This Site” lightbulb on the home page for searching tips.)
Under the main categories, you will find relevant research links. For example, under “Diseases” we have linked the WSU vegetable and vegetable seed pathology team Web sites, and the disease diagnostic clinics. Under “Weed Control,” you’ll find WSU’s Crop and Soil Science Department and some key research and extension personnel dealing with weeds, as well as WSDA’s weed program and the Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board. A similar pattern is repeated in the Insect Pests, IPM, Organics, and Pesticides sections. At the end of each section we have linked to pertinent publications available from WSU Cooperative Extension. The Biological and Cultural Controls section is organized a little differently than the others, our thought being that users will want to look up information by crop. So if you are interested in cherries, you will find researchers in both biocontrol (L. Lacey) and cultural methods (D. Granatstein) listed. If you are interested in carrots, you will find a researcher in sustainable agriculture (C. Miles) as well as a link to the carrot crop profile. We are in the process of building and adding research/extension programs to the list at this time (bear in mind, this is a brand-new page). If you are or know of WSU research or extension personnel who should be listed please contact me directly (firstname.lastname@example.org).
The WSPRS home page also provides a link in the main navigation bar to all Washington Crop Profiles and Pest Management Strategic Plans. These useful documents are a good place to start for an overview of pest management practices on a specific crop.
Another important primary link labeled “Applicator Training” provides a bridge to the Pesticide Education Program. Here, professional applicators can see class schedules for their licensing and recertification training, and members of the pest management community at large can find other educational opportunities.
Each page on the WSPRS Web site offers three featured links in little circles at the top right. These “buttons” take you to our most popular and time-tested features: AENews, the PICOL label and tolerance databases, and the PNN (Pesticide Notification Network).
The WSPRS page replaces the old PICOL page, formerly at http://picol.cahe.wsu.edu. Longtime users logging onto the old PICOL page will see the PICOL-to-WSPRS graphic shown below, and will be directed to the new WSPRS page automatically.
On the lighter side, if you have ever wondered about the staff here, we even have a short biography section (“About WSPRS”) that describes in unflattering detail what we are really like. Just your average librarian types really, but it seemed a shame to let vacant Web space and stylish digital photos go to waste.
So about that acronym…WSPRS. Washington State Pest Management Resource Service. What happened to the M? Well, it had to go. You see, coming up with an acceptable title is one thing, but it takes even more effort to get a name with a series of letters that trips off the tongue.
How will you remember it? Remember how I said we are rather like librarians? Don't they often tell you to “shush” in the library? That’s the take-home message: when you need a librarian, resort to “WhiSPeRS.”
Dr. Catherine Daniels is Pesticide Coordinator for WSU and Director of WSPRS, as well as Managing Editor for this newsletter. She can be reached at email@example.com or (509) 372-7495. Or read all about her (and the other members of the WSPRS staff) at http://wsprs.wsu.edu/About.html.
This year’s Interregional Research Project #4 (IR-4) Food Use Workshop drew a record number of participants. Nearly two hundred attendees came together in Orlando, Florida, for three days of work toward prioritizing the program’s research efforts for 2003. Participants included researchers with the U. S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) and the land grant university system, members of commodity groups, and representatives from biotech, chemical, and food processing companies. As always, the workshop, which was held September 17 – 19, 2002, was an open forum that encouraged discussion and information exchange among the parties.
IR-4 was established in 1963 to increase the availability of crop protection chemistries for minor crop producers. It is the only publicly funded program in the United States that conducts research and submits petitions to the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for registration of pest control agents on minor crops. “Minor crops” include most vegetables, fruits, nuts, herbs, spices, nursery and landscape plants, and flowers. They are considered “minor” because each is grown on 300,000 acres or less compared to million of acres dedicated to “major” crops such as corn, soybeans, and wheat. The crop protection industry lacks incentive to pursue registrations on minor crops because low acreage means low return on investment. But these high value/low acreage crops make up about 40% of U.S. agricultural production ($40 billion). Gross returns per acre for minor crops can run into thousands of dollars compared to hundreds of dollars for the large acreage crops. Twenty-three states derive more than fifty percent of their agricultural crop sales from minor crops.
IR-4 works with growers, scientists, and commodity organizations to identify minor crop pest control needs, then encourages and funds research efforts toward filling those needs. As there are far more needs than dollars to meet those needs, requests are prioritized yearly and research assignments are made.
Food crop projects are the largest part of the IR-4 work plan. In the fall of each year, a Food Use Workshop is held to sort out and determine the top priorities for the coming year’s research. This workshop is a keystone for IR-4 activities. Projects slated for immediate research in the coming year are labeled “A” priorities. Those with strong merit but not guaranteed to be researched are labeled “B” priorities. “C” priority projects will not receive attention from IR-4 in the coming year.
This year’s Food Use Workshop saw good representation from the Western Region, with key personnel from Arizona, California, Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Oregon, and Washington in attendance. Despite the diverse range of cropping systems in the Western states, the group exhibited great unity, supporting research trials with widespread crop grouping implications.
Two years ago, IR-4 shifted from its sole original mandate of completing magnitude-of-residue trials to including efficacy trials. This year, the focus and the funding returned squarely to magnitude-of-residue research. A number of pesticides were identified as needing efficacy data, but the group left those as “C” priorities, hoping that university specialists or registrants will pursue these trials independent of IR-4. Efficacy trials via IR-4 will be re-evaluated at next year’s Food Use Workshop.
A Pest Management Strategic Plan (PMSP) is a document that identifies key pests driving pesticide use; identifies acceptable alternatives (if any) to those pesticides in use; details why other registered pesticides are not used (e.g., efficacy concerns, resistance concerns, etc.); and lists the necessary steps and timeline to "transition" an industry away from use of a particular pesticide or toward use of a new control method. PMSPs are produced by a group of stakeholders within a state or region producing a particular commodity, then used by governmental and regulatory agencies including U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA), the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and, now, IR-4. (For information on PMSPs involving Washington State, see http://wsprs.wsu.edu/CropProfiles.html; a list of national PMSPs is available at http://pestdata.ncsu.edu/pmsp/.)
PMSPs were given significant weight at this year's Food Use Workshop. Discussion between IR-4 officials and Regional Pest Management Centers (the entities that generally facilitate PMSP production) over the past two years have resulted in IR-4 agreeing to designate at least five crop-chemistry combinations identified by PMSP strategic workgroups as "A" priorities for IR-4 research. To qualify
Not all PMSPs translated into instant “A” priorities. In the case of dry peas and lentils (the first international PMSP, involving several Northern and Western U.S. states and three central Canadian provinces) a top-priority chemistry identified at the Saskatchewan conference last June (thiamethoxam) was already in the registration pipeline by the time the Food Use Workshop took place. In that instance, IR-4 elevated fluazinam, a desirable alternative chemistry identified in the PMSP, to an "A" priority research project for 2003.
In the case of potatoes, the industry identified fosthiazate (a nematicide), which presents regulatory difficulties as it is an organophosphate, therefore requires rigorous and extensive cumulative risk data under the Food Quality Protection Act. No PDP (USDA Pesticide Data Program, or “market basket”) data is available on fosthiazate in the United States, but solid and substantially similar data is available in United Kingdom. IR-4 is taking a hands-off approach while the registrant (ISK Biosciences is the data preparation company, Syngenta will be the marketer) works with EPA on these thorny risk assessment issues.
California almond growers sought field trials for spinosad on their crop via their PMSP. While this use was not immediately prioritized at the Food Use Workshop, it was studied and subsequently assigned an "A" priority.
Pronamide was identified as critical in a leaf lettuce PMSP and was designated an "A" priority for 2003 research at the Food Use Workshop.
For further information about IR-4, see the Website at http://pestdata.ncsu.edu/ir-4. You can view the priority A and B results from this year’s Food Use Workshop at http://pestdata.ncsu.edu/ir-4/docs/WorkshopResults.htm . Pesticides are grouped by target pest (weed, insect, disease). As of November 1, a revised tenative research plan was posted as a PDF document at http://pestdata.ncsu.edu/ir-4/binars/2003ResearchPlan.pdf.
The IR-4 Website has greatly improved over the past year or two. New and useful features include the ability to search for the status of a pesticide-crop or pesticide-crop group combination. This search page is found at http://pestdata.ncsu.edu/ir-4/Food_Use.cfm , and includes pull-down menus so you don’t have to remember how to spell pendimathalin (a.k.a. Prowl) or pejibaye (a.k.a. peach palm), and so you can choose the correct type of pea from among the seventeen classifications of “pea.”
For specifics on IR-4 within your state, contact your IR-4 Liaison Representative. For Washington State, that's Doug Walsh at (509) 786-2226 or firstname.lastname@example.org. For Oregon, it's Jeff Jenkins at Oregon State University, (541) 737-5993 or email@example.com. For Idaho, it's Ronda Hirnyck at the University of Idaho, (208) 364-4046 or firstname.lastname@example.org. For other states, see the IR-4 directory on the Internet at http://pestdata.ncsu.edu/ir-4/Cindex.cfm.
Information for this article was derived from the IR-4 Website and from conversations with conference attendees.
During the last decade scientists have come to realize that plants have developed a subtle line of defense against plant-feeding organisms. When a plant is attacked by a herbivore such as a caterpillar, an aphid, or a mite, it responds by releasing a bouquet of chemicals, undetectable by the human nose but a veritable aromatic cocktail to odor-sensitive insects and mites.
In some instances these odors or “infochemicals” simply repel other plant pests but an increasing body of scientific evidence shows that some of these chemicals play a role as “signalling compounds.” These subtle smells actively recruit plant “bodyguards” to help fend off herbivore attackers. Bodyguards, that is predators and parasitoids of pest insects and mites, use herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) to cue in on their prey.
Much of our knowledge of HIPVs and the responses of natural enemies has been obtained during the last decade from laboratory studies using bean plants, spider mites, and predatory mites as the model organisms. However, field evidence for the system is now beginning to accumulate, with studies demonstrating increases in predator populations when plants are artificially stimulated to produce HIPVs. Research currently underway in WSU Department of Entomology at Prosser is adding to our knowledge of HIPVs, particularly their potential use in integrated pest management.
Methyl salicylate (MS), also known as oil of wintergreen, is an inexpensive and commercially available compound. It is used in many products like linaments, ointments, aromatherapy oils, toothpaste, hair care products, and food flavorings. It is also an HIPV shown to be attractive in the laboratory to predatory mites and predatory bugs. MS has been identified in the HIPV blends from at least eight plant species including lima bean, cabbage, pear, hops, tobacco, and some weed species. It is also repellent to some species of aphids. Surprisingly, despite the availability of MS, no studies have been conducted on the potential use of this HIPV in crops to increase predator populations and biological control. This was rectified in 2002 when we commenced trapping studies in an unsprayed WSU Prosser hop yard with MS and three other HIPVs: hexenyl acetate (HA), dimethyl-octatriene (DO), and dimethyl-nonatriene (DN). We are still collecting and analyzing data but will report here the most significant results to date.
We conducted two hop yard experiments. In the first, we attached sticky, yellow, nine-by-five-inch cards to hop poles; the cards were either unbaited or baited with MS, HA, DO, or DN. In the second experiment, we hung Universal moth traps (small green buckets with an entry cone) from hop plants. Each Universal trap was filled to a depth of a few inches with water (to drown captured insects) and baited with MS or methyl eugenol (ME) [reported as a lacewing attractant in the literature] or left unbaited. Baits were supplied in 2-ml glass vials taped to the bottom of sticky traps or the inside wall of Universal traps. Sticky cards and traps were checked weekly and trapped insects identified and counted.
The green lacewing, Chrysopa nigricornis, is an important predator of aphids and mites in the Pacific Northwest, occurring in many tree crop systems and hops. It is one species in the “army” of beneficial insects and mites that we are trying to encourage to enter hop yards in spring to provide a good base for biological control (see “Natural Enemies: A New Weapon in the War on Hop Pests,” AENews Issue No. 194, June 2002). C. nigricornis is particularly valuable as an aphid and mite predator in hop yards because unlike many other lacewing species, adults as well as larvae feed on aphids and mites. A single C. nigricornis may consume up to 1000 aphids in its lifetime.
Significantly greater numbers of C. nigricornis were trapped on MS-baited sticky cards than on the other HIPV-baited or unbaited cards (Figure 1). A mean of 2.8 (± 0.4) C. nigricornis per card per week was captured during from June 13 to September 5 on the MS- baited cards compared to 0.45 (± 0.15) on the unbaited cards. Only one C. nigricornis was captured in the unbaited Universal traps and three in the ME-baited traps. In contrast, 67 were captured in the MS-baited traps (Figure 2).
|Weekly mean (± SE) number of adult green lacewings, Chrysopa nigricornis, trapped on yellow sticky cards baited with methyl salicylate, dimethyl octatriene, dimethyl nonatriene, or hexenyl acetate, or left unbaited, during 11 April – 5 September 2002 in a Washington hop yard.|
|Weekly mean (± SE) number of adult green lacewings, Chrysopa nigricornis, captured in Universal traps baited with methyl salicylate or methyl eugenol or left unbaited, during 2 July – 10 September 2002 in a Washington hop yard.|
These data are good evidence for the attraction of a lacewing species to MS under field conditions. This is the first time a lacewing species has been demonstrated to respond to MS. Additional data (not presented here) show positive responses to MS in some other beneficial insect species as well. These preliminary findings are sufficient to encourage further exploration of using synthetic HIPVs as pest management tools.
MS may have dual benefits for pest management in hops. Earlier research in Europe showed MS is repellent to hop aphids, reducing spring colonization of hop yards in some instances. Thus MS may have potential for increasing populations of beneficial insects AND decreasing populations of pests! Much research remains to be done on the practical use and benefits to be gained by using MS, but it appears to be an area rich with potential. We hope to begin trials next season monitoring the recruitment and residence of natural enemies in hop yards using MS dispensers and comparing numbers to hop yards without the “aromatherapy” enticement.
Dr. David James and Tanya Price are with WSU’s Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center (IAREC) in Prosser. Dr. James can be reached at email@example.com or (509) 786-9280.
Campbell, C. A. M., J. Pettersson, J. A. Pickett, L. J. Wadhams and C. M. Woodcock. 1993. Spring migration of Damson-hop aphid, Phorodon humuli (Homoptera: Aphididae), and summer host plant-derived semiochemicals released on feeding. J. Chem Ecol. 19:1569-1576.
Dicke, M. and M. W. Sabelis. 1988. How plants obtain predatory mites as bodyguards. Neth. J. Zool. 38:148-165.
Dicke, M., M. W. Sabelis, J. Takabayashi, J. Bruin and M. A. Posthumus. 1990. Plant strategies of manipulating predator-prey interactions through allelochemicals: Prospects for application in pest control. J. Chem. Ecol. 16:3091-3118.
Kessler, A. and I. T. Baldwin. 2001. Defensive function of herbivore-induced plant volatile emissions in nature. Science 291:2141-2144.
Pare, P.W. and J. H. Tumlinson. 1996. Plant volatile signals in response to herbivore feeding. Fla. Entomol. 19:93-103.
Shimoda, T., J. Takabayashi, W. Ashira and A. Takafuji. 1997. Response of predatory insect, Scolothrips takahashi towards herbivore-induced plant volatiles under laboratory and field conditions. J. Chem. Ecol. 23:2033-2048.
Tumlinson, J. H. 1995. The chemistry of eavesdropping, alarm and deceit. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA 92:23-28.
Takabayashi, J. and M. Dicke. 1996. Plant-carnivore mutualism through herbivore-induced carnivore attractants. Trends in Plant Sci. 1:109-113.
Vet, L. E. M. and M. Dicke. 1992. Ecology of infochemical use by natural enemies in a tritrophic context. Ann. Rev. Entomol. 37:141-172.
Announcements & Upcoming Conferences
The fourth biennial Agriculture and Water Quality in the Pacific Northwest Conference will take place at the Yakima Conference Center November 19 and 20, 2002. This conference is designed to improve communication, build understanding, and foster cooperation among agricultural producers, government officials, environmentalists, and others interested in water quality issues. The intent is to present different perspectives in a non-confrontational forum, and to foster understanding and appreciation of varying points of view. Registration forms are now available on the Internet at http://www.agwaterqualitynw.org.
Conference attendees will include people from the farming community, the public and private agricultural service sector, university staff, government regulatory agencies, and environmental organizations. Main interests will include applied solutions, cooperative arrangements, and approaches to agricultural water quality issues in the past, present, and future. The 2000 Agriculture and Water Quality in the Pacific Northwest Conference held in Eugene, Oregon, drew nearly 300 attendees.
This year's conference will feature fifteen sessions covering water and agriculture topics including irrigation management, pesticide issues, riparian buffers, farm planning, BMP/TMDL implementation, and the Klamath Basin water issue. In addition, two concurrent water quality workshops will be offered on Monday, November 18, prior to the conference. The first, "Stream and Riparian Area Monitoring From TMDLs to Buffer Zones" will illustrate what is measured and why. It will include monitoring protocols, techniques, and equipment typically used and will discuss TMDL parameters. The second workshop, "Managing Organic Nutrients," will show how climate and management effect nutrient release and how different organic sources vary in their ability to supply nutrients. The workshops run from 1:00 p.m. to 4:30 p.m. and cost $15 dollars each. Payment is made through the registration process.
conference costs $140 before November
11, and $185 at the door. The registration fee
includes two lunches and one dinner. The West Coast Hotels at
Yakima Center and Yakima Gateway have a limited number of rooms
reserved for conference attendees. For those not wishing to stay
at the conference site, there are also inexpensive hotels close
to the conference center.
Conference organizers encourage you to attend what is sure to be a very interesting and productive conference. The deadline for early registration has been moved to November 11, so there's still time to save as of this newsletter's launch. For complete details on the upcoming conference, contact steering committee chair, Matt Haynes, with the Oregon Department of Agriculture at (503) 986-6471 or visit the Agriculture and Water Quality in the Pacific Northwest Conference Website at
February 26, 2003
This year's Pacific Northwest Pesticide Issues Conference focuses on the issue of Agricultural Safety and Health. The conference will be held at the Yakima Doubletree Hotel on February 26, 2003, and offers recertification credit for Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana.
Conference goals are to meet the education and information needs of people involved in farming, forestry, greenhouse, and nursery health and safety, with a strong emphasis on pesticide issues, and to facilitate neteworking and information exchange among participants. Attendees will likely represent grower associations, individual growers, forestry concerns, agrichemical dealers, crop consultants, chemical companies, state and federal regulatory agencies, and university research and extension programs.
The conference is co-sponsored by WSU Cooperative Extension, U of W Pacific Northwest Agricultural Safety and Health Center, U of W School of Public Health and Community Medicine, and the Northwest Center for Occupational Health and Safety. Conference organizer Carol Ramsay can be reached at (509) 335-9222 or firstname.lastname@example.org. More information, including the latest on the conference agenda, can be found at
or, for easy printing, try the
(This PDF version requires software such as Adobe Acrobat Reader, a free program available for download at http://www.adobe.com/prodindex/acrobat/readstep.html)
To address public and government concerns about the security of the agricultural sector of the chemical industry after September 11, 2001, the agribusiness security working group (comprised of the Agricultural Retailers Association, CropLife America, and The Fertilizer Institute) recently released "Guidelines to Ensure a Secure Agribusiness," a resource for enhancing ag retailer and distributor site security. The guidelines were developed using a team of security professionals and industry leaders from manufacturing to retail in coordination with government agencies charged with chemical industry safety and security. The guidelines are available upon request, at no charge, from any of the sponsoring organizations and in PDF format at
Carrie Foss and Carol Ramsay have updated the Web site for the 2002-2003 Pesticide Education Training season. The Web site has dates, locations, agendas, and registration forms. Point your Internet browser to
and select "Recertification
and Pre-License Training." Each licensed pesticide applicator
in Washington State should receive a hard copy of this information
in the mail by the second week in October. Printed copies of the
information are also available through county Cooperative Extension
Washington State University (WSU) provides pre-license and recertification training for pesticide applicators. Pre-license training provides information useful in taking the licensing exam. Recertification (continuing education) is one of two methods to maintain licensing. (The other is retesting every five years.)
Course registration (including study materials) is $35 per day if postmarked 14 days prior to the first day of the program you will be attending. Otherwise, registration is $50 per day. These fees do not include Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) licence fees. For WSDA testing sites, schedule, or other testing information, call 1-877-301-4555.
For more detailed information about WSU's pesticide applicator training, call the Pesticide Education Program at (509) 335-2830 or visit the Web site.
The American Mosquito Control Association (AMCA) will hold its annual meeting on March 2-6, 2002, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. The agenda will include major sessions on West Nile Virus.
For more information on this meeting and other mosquito control topics, including a searchable database on West Nile Virus information, see the AMCA Website
Return to Table of Contents for the November, 2002 issue
Open Forum: In an attempt to promote free and open discussion of issues, The Agrichemical and Environmental News encourages letters and articles with differing views. To discuss submission of an article, please contact Dr. Allan Felsot at (509) 372-7365 or email@example.com; Dr. Catherine Daniels at (509) 372-7495 or firstname.lastname@example.org; Dr. Doug Walsh at (509) 786-2226 or email@example.com; Dr. Vincent Hebert at (509) 372-7393 or firstname.lastname@example.org; or AENews editor Sally O'Neal Coates at (509) 372-7378 or email@example.com.
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