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|Input Needed Now for 2001 IR-4 Projects||"Show Us the Data!" New FEQL Chemist Looks Ahead|
|Precision Ag Center Introduced at WSU||Food Safety Conference Teems with Information (Part 2)|
|Regulating Herbicide Tolerant Plants||QBL Speaks Out: Non-Anom Nominees|
|Dear Aggie||PNN Update|
|Free Pesticide Disposal||2000 Pesticide Container Recycling Schedule|
|Federal Register Excerpts||Tolerance Information|
Return to Agrichemical and Environmental News Index
The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 changed the landscape of food safety and pesticide use. We are now in year four of the FQPA era. Revised risk assessments of pesticides--for better or worse--are being ground through the regulatory system. In many cases, pesticide uses are being curtailed or dramatically restricted. As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency restricts the use of key pesticides, registration of alternative products becomes even more important. To increase the availability of crop protection chemistries for minor crop producers, the Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) was established in 1963. IR-4 is a federal/state/private cooperative that aspires to obtain clearances for pest control chemistries on minor crops. (For a complete description of IR-4's workings see "IR-4: Developing and Delivering Pest Management Solutions for Minor Crop Producers," AENews No. 162, Oct. 1999.)
On September 11 through 13, 2000, the IR-4 prioritization workshop for year 2001 projects will take place in Orlando, Florida. Requests to IR-4 are many and the number of projects that can be funded and completed is limited.
As the Washington State Liaison to the IR-4 program and as a Commissioner on the Washington State Commission on Pesticide Registration, I need to know the pest control needs and concerns among the diverse agricultural producers of Washington State. This spring, I listed new pest control chemistries with registration potential at http://www2.tricity.wsu.edu/aenews/April00AENews/NewProducts.html. In this month's newsletter (see table at the end of this newsletter), you will find a condensed list of IR-4 projects that have already been proposed for the year 2001.
The first step toward making a pesticide need known is to submit a Pesticide Clearance Request form (PCR) to IR-4. Anyone can submit a PCR; parties in Washington State can obtain them from me. I can assist interested parties in prompt submission of the form and I can help bring those needs to the attention of IR-4 at the September meeting.
Individuals or groups wishing to initiate review of a particular crop-chemistry combination should look over the proposed list in the table below. If the crop-chemistry of interest is not already listed, contact me right away. On the other hand, don't hesitate to contact me if the project has been submitted by another state. Projects that have been requested by multiple states are more likely to be received positively by IR-4.
Washington State has a strong reputation for being proactive in pest control efforts. This is facilitated through communication between agricultural producers and university specialists. Please make your pest control needs and concerns known to me.
Dr. Douglas B. Walsh is the Washington State Liaison Representative for IR-4. His office is located at WSU's Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center (IAREC) in Prosser. He can be reached at email@example.com or (509) 786-2226.
The Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), in cooperation with local agencies, will collect unusable pesticides from businesses and organizations at the following locations on the dates shown. Herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, rodenticides, fumigants, antibacterial materials, adjuvants, and other types of pesticides are accepted. (Please see related announcement below regarding a recent development affecting WSDA acceptance of materials containing regulated amounts of dioxin.) Businesses and organizations are usually expected to pay disposal fees for these materials, but this program is offered at no cost to help landscapers, exterminators, farmers, and others remove these materials from their premises.
Those wishing to participate in the pesticide disposal program must sign up in advance by calling WSDA at (360) 902-2056. Note the sign-up deadlines. Interested parties calling after the sign-up deadline may be accommodated on a space-available basis or at a future collection event.
The Waste Pesticide Program has operated in Washington State since 1988. Nearly seventy regional collection events have been held, and over 900,000 pounds of unusable pesticides have been collected from over 3250 participants.
During my short time in Washington State (six days as of this writing), I have been amazed at the interest in environmental and agricultural issues expressed by people from various backgrounds. Washington citizens are not only interested in the sensitive issues immediately facing their state's agricultural production, they are knowledgeable about them and apparently eager to talk!
Two days ago, I stopped in the town of Starbuck on my way to visit Palouse Falls. There, I had the opportunity to listen to two local residents engage in a lively discussion on the 4(d) "take" rule of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and its potential implications for regional agriculture. These gentlemen informed me that the National Marine Fisheries Service's (NMFS's) interpretation of "take" with respect to threatened and endangered steelhead and salmon populations could have major implications on current pesticide use and irrigation practices in the Columbia and Snake river basins. (ED. NOTE: In short, under the NMFS interpretation, you don't have to kill a species to "take" it--a variety of disturbances can be defined as "taking.") One of their major concerns was whether the proper use of currently registered herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides would be impacted by this rule. Because I lack familiarity with this issue, I could not offer an opinion. Instead, I asked, "If you knew that sound scientific information were available to address pesticide practices in the Snake and Columbia river basins, would you feel more comfortable with the decision-making process?" Without hesitation, they both said, "Show us the data!"
I believe that healthy public skepticism is not merely a good thing, it is an essential element in the democratic process. It is the catalyst for research in pursuit of accurate information, which in turn is the foundation for sound legislation. Providing sound scientific information to the public and to state and federal regulatory agencies will be my principal mission at the Food and Environmental Quality Lab (FEQL)--information that will assist in making informed judgments in environmental policy while protecting the rich diversity and productivity of Washington's agriculture.
The passage of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) in 1996 dramatically changed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) mandate. Where EPA was once charged with the rather nebulous task of weighing benefits against risks, now they are required to establish exacting pesticide residue tolerances based on new and complex safety factors designed to protect the most sensitive population groups. With this change comes enormous pressure to develop and maintain a diverse arsenal of integrated pest management tools for protecting the environment for future generations while ensuring the quality of the food supply. My work to expand the Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) program here at the FEQL will be an integral component in meeting the requirements of state and federal regulators so they can address these challenges. Combined with the efforts of commodity grower groups and the Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4), my work here will provide information that will accelerate needed registrations of alternative chemistries for the diverse crops in this state.
Meanwhile, the next time I'm in Starbuck, I hope I can assuage some local skepticism (or at least add to the knowledge base) by being more informed. Once my boxes are unpacked and my program is up and running, I'll be able to say that sound scientific information is indeed available, or at least under development, to address the food and environmental quality concerns as well as the agricultural production concerns of our citizens. But if the questions turn to politics, I'll say, much as Sergeant Joe Friday of Dragnet might have said, that I provide "Just the facts!"
Dr. Vincent Hebert is the new Analytical
Chemist at WSU's Food and Environmental Quality Lab. Once his
boxes are unpacked, he can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org
or (509) 372-7393.
The most recent Washington State biennial budget included funding to both the University of Washington (UW) and Washington State University (WSU) for a program called the Advanced Technology Initiative (ATI). Included in the ATI were funds to WSU earmarked for the advancement of precision agriculture technologies, and to UW for efforts in precision forestry. This article explains how WSU has used its funding to establish a Center for Precision Agriculture Systems; UW's Precision Forestry Cooperative will be discussed in a forthcoming issue.
ATI funds led to the establishment of the Center for Precision Agriculture Systems (CPAS) under the interim directorship of Dr. Denny Davis (WSU Department of Biosystems Engineering). Just as precision agriculture is a little different approach to farming (1, 2), CPAS began as a center that was a little different from others at WSU. Initially, CPAS could have been described as a "virtual center"--a center without a charter, a permanent director, or a physical home. One by one, we have chipped away at these items.
On April 13, 2000, the Washington State University Faculty Senate approved CPAS. The center now has a charter and is officially recognized as a center within the WSU system. The mission, goal, and objectives of CPAS are provided at the end of this article.
WSU involvement in precision agriculture began years before the Advanced Technology Initiative. In 1993, WSU-Prosser faculty members worked collaboratively with USDA/ARS scientists at Prosser developing yield monitoring equipment for potatoes. The project evolved over time to include partnerships with the agricultural industry in the Columbia Basin. Along a similar path, WSU-Prosser faculty developed a project on precision agriculture in grapes in the mid-1990s. The potato and grape projects continued to expand. Motorola became interested in developing technologies for precision agriculture and approached WSU because of the efforts already in place and the diversity of crops grown in Washington State. The arrival of the ATI funds further expanded the programs. Between Motorola and ATI funds for the center, the grape and potato projects have expanded to involve WSU faculty members in Prosser, Tri-Cities, and Pullman.
CPAS established a presence as a Pacific Northwest precision agriculture leader by sponsoring the Western Precision Agriculture Conference, held in Pasco February 15 and 16, 2000. The conference was well attended and hosted speakers from all around North America.
A key part of making CPAS a true center for precision agriculture is establishing strong leadership. A joint university-industry committee conducted a national search for the center's director. From a pool of sixteen applicants, three top candidates were interviewed. Dr. Francis J. Pierce, a soil scientist from Michigan State University who has long been active in precision agriculture, will be coming to WSU to serve as the Center Director in September 2000. Dr. Pierce plans to be active in precision agriculture research efforts and to participate in numerous outreach and administrative activities.
With a charter in place and a director on the way, CPAS is well on its way to being less of a virtual center and more of a tangible one. Dr. Pierce has chosen to locate the center at the WSU Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center (IAREC) in Prosser.
A little more than a year after funding was made available, WSU's new Center for Precision Agriculture Systems has been established and is operational. The next steps will be to build on what CPAS has already started: conducting and supporting research to advance agricultural systems; being involved in outreach and educational activities to enhance training in and awareness of precision agriculture tools; and building relationships with the agricultural industry in the state of Washington. In partnership with the local agricultural industry, CPAS can continue to build Washington's role as a leader in precision agriculture.
Dr. Joan Davenport is an Assistant Professor and Soil Scientist at Washington State University's IAREC located in Prosser. She can be reached at (509) 786-2226 or email@example.com.
Center for Precision Agricultural Systems (CPAS)
The eighth Food Safety: Farm to Table Conference was held May 16 and 17, 2000, in Moscow, Idaho. Sponsored by the cooperative extension systems of Washington State University (WSU) and University of Idaho (UI), the conference brings together representatives of academia, industry, and government for an annual look at current issues in food safety. Last month, we covered Day One of the conference, featuring topics including food safety in produce, antimicrobial use in livestock, control of Listeria at the packing plant, and tracking foodborne illness outbreaks. This month, we cover Day Two.
Dr. Sandy McCurdy, Extension Food Safety Specialist with UI, introduced the first speaker of the second morning. Vicki Bess, President of BBC Labs, an independent microbiology lab, spoke about reduction of pathogens in compost and manure.
Bess first gave a primer on compost, showing slides and explaining how compost differs from mulch, manure, and other substances in that it has been biologically digested to stabilize nutrients and to kill pathogens and weed seeds. Key to this process is the heat naturally produced by a correct composting operation.
Pathogens in compost, explained Bess, are a function of the level of pathogens present in the source (potentially pathogenic sources include sewage sludge, animal manure, municipal solid waste, and green waste) and the source material's response to the mechanisms of pathogen destruction in the composting process. These mechanisms include competition, antibiosis, and, of course, heat. An accepted heat standard for pathogen control is 131°F for fifteen consecutive days in windrow composting. For good weed seed kill, Bess recommends higher temperatures (140°F to 150°F) in the West. (See Three Composting Styles sidebar, below.)
For pathogen reduction in manure (as opposed to compost), again the source composition must be considered. Air drying aids in reduction, but the pathogens can be very persistent. Cornell University is currently exploring the addition of sodium carbonate, but the jury is still out on its effectiveness.
Pros and Cons
Next, Dr. Steven Harper, Director of Research and Development at Small Planet Foods, gave an update on U.S. organic regulations and standards.
National organic regulations were first proposed in 1997. After a considerable amount of wrangling and dissention in the ranks, a revised set of federal organic regulations was proposed on March 13, 2000. The comment period for these proposed regulations closed June 12, 2000. Revised regulations, taking comments into account, could be made public as soon as September, 2000. Congress then has a sixty-day veto period, after which the proposed regulations may become law. Roughly speaking, this could occur as soon as the end of this calendar year.
The March proposal reflected a number of consumer-driven "hot-button" issues including the exclusion from "organic" designation of genetically modified (GM) crops, products treated with sewage or biosludge, and irradiated products. The proposal also included lists of allowed synthetic and prohibited natural substances with respect to production, processing, and livestock. It provided for state and private certifiers to conduct annual reviews of growers and processors, and gave certifiers the right to de-certify.
For a plant product to be certified organic, no prohibited substances may have been used on that land for three years prior to the subject harvest. Livestock for slaughter must be organically raised from birth, whereas livestock for milk production must be under organic management for one year. Organic management excludes use of hormones and antibiotics. (Future concerns may include standards for wild-caught fish and organic aquaculture.)
Four different labels will be used on processed foods under the proposed regulations:
Note that the federal organic standards apply to product production processes, not measurable properties of the resulting product. Certifiers will be auditing practices, not testing content.
More information on organic standards can be found on the Internet at http://www.ams.usda.gov/nop, http://www.ota.com, and http://www.omri.org.
Dr. Barbara Rasco of WSU's Food Science and Human Nutrition Department presented an update on U.S. food safety regulations. While GM crops weren't on the agenda until the afternoon session, this highly topical issue had been rearing its head throughout the morning, and continued to dominate in this presentation. Dr. Rasco discussed the widely divided public perception of transgenics, sharing "urban myth" anecdotes from the United Kingdom-a leading nation in GM fearmongering. The outright untruths in European supermarkets and the over-the-top consumer reactions incited a great deal of eye-rolling and groaning amongst conference participants. Science-based or not, current perception and policy trends seem to be leading toward increased regulatory oversight of GM crops, labeling of products containing GM ingredients, and segregation of GM-containing from GM-free products. Such regulation may well prove a nightmare to implement and enforce, and is already causing economic fallout in the areas of insurance, finance, law, and transportation.
While many regulations make life tough for agricultural producers, others are designed to protect them. Laws are being enacted, for example, to provide recourse for victims of agricultural terrorism, whether that terrorism takes the form of physical crop sabotage or disinformation dispersal. Verbal attacks (both intentional, like the Alar scare, and inadvertent, such as Oprah Winfrey's mad cow disease comments) have led to the evolution of "veggie libel laws," which hold that free speech must be correct speech, shifting the burden of proof to the complainant when food is alleged unsafe.
Dr. Rasco's powerful and fast-paced presentation imparted a great deal of information, raised a number of controversial issues, and was certainly a better pre-lunch choice than last year's Yersinia-related pig disembowelment slides.
In the afternoon, Dr. Alan McCurdy, WSU Chair of Food Science and Human Nutrition, kicked off the official biotechnology segment of the conference by introducing Dr. James Cook. Dr. Cook, a plant pathologist and member of the National Academy of Sciences, holds an Endowed Chair in Wheat Research at WSU. He put things in perspective by reminding us that biotechnology is a very old science-it's simply the use of biological systems to achieve specific ends, as is done in winemaking and cheesemaking. The evolution of applied genetics to production agriculture is, in his view, a natural one.
Of course, Dr. Cook was preaching to the choir--or at least a very sympathetic congregation--when he enumerated potential benefits of GM crops, including:
As Dr. Cook elegantly outlined some of the beneficial properties that can be conferred upon crops through application of GM technology-broad-spectrum herbicide resistance, insecticidal properties, virus resistance, enhanced nutrition-it seemed impossible to deny the benefits. Yet, an hour earlier, as Dr. Rasco presented the tidal wave of public pressure against GM crops, it seemed impossible to envision a near future when these many benefits would be embraced by the public.
Dr. Stephen Taylor, head of the Food Science and Technology Department at the University of Nebraska, addressed the safety of bioengineered food products. He became involved in the study of splicing Brazil nut genes into soybeans because of his background in food allergies. Giving detailed examples of this project and others, Dr. Taylor exploded the myth that "no testing takes place" on transgenics. As Dr. Allan Felsot has explained so eloquently in these pages (see his "Insecticidal Genes" series in AENews Nos. 167-170), extensive safety assessment has taken place on every GM crop and testing is ongoing.
Dr. Taylor detailed the three phases of the U.S. safety assessment process: Phase One, assessment of the gene and crop themselves; Phase Two, a detailed look at biological and agronomic equivalence; and Phase Three, assessment of the product in its food, feed, and environmental applications. He broke each phase into subcomponents, offering examples of actual test results on a variety of products. He pointed out the many pitfalls in conducting rigorous science and communicating it to a cynical public, and the difficulty in shedding light on bad science. The inherent "Catch-22" is the fact that you can prove non-safety, but you can't prove safety.
A tremendous amount of ground was covered at this two-day conference. As with any good forum on science and policy, it raised more questions than it answered. In the end, several things were clear. For one, GM crops are controversial, and that controversy is not going away quickly or easily. Two, most of the conference's distinguished presenters had mastered Microsoft PowerPoint, a claim that could not be made in 1999. And three, most conference attendees learned a new word ("manurial"), though one we're not likely to toss around at cocktail parties.
Those wishing further information on the 2000 Food Safety: Farm to Table Conference can contact Conference Co-Chair Carolyn Bohach at (208) 885-5906 or firstname.lastname@example.org or committee member Val Hillers at (509) 335-2970 or email@example.com.
Sally O'Neal Coates is the Editor of Agrichemical and Environmental News. She can be reached at firstname.lastname@example.org or (509) 372-7378.
The following is excerpted from an upcoming AENews article by Dr. Felsot on crops genetically engineered for herbicide tolerance. Watch for "Herbicide Tolerant Genes," Parts 1, 2, and 3, in future issues beginning in September.
One of the most common complaints about transgenic crop technology stems from the perception that little safety testing was done prior to commercial release of the engineered cultivars. In fact, the risks of genetically engineered herbicide tolerance were assessed by three federal regulatory agencies, APHIS (USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service), FDA (Food & Drug Administration), and EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Although APHIS, FDA, and EPA consult with one another, each plays a distinct role in regulating transgenic crops and other biotechnology products.
APHIS is charged by the Federal Plant Pest Act and the Plant Quarantine Act with ensuring that new crops or other organisms do not become agricultural pests when they are released into the field. Companies developing new products or importing biological control organisms, for example, must convince APHIS that the novel introductions will not have adverse agricultural impacts. These companies must show how the organisms will be contained in the testing process and after introduction into production systems. After assessing available data about the organism--in this case, the transgenic crop--APHIS determines whether further regulation is required (1).
Under authority of Section 402 of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the FDA regulates foods for natural toxins (e.g., solanine levels in potatoes) and unavoidable contaminants (e.g., mercury, lead, dioxins). Under the Food Additive Amendment to the FFDCA (Section 409), the FDA also can regulate intentionally added substances that could make the food injurious. The FDA considers section 409 of the FFDCA to give it authority to treat the gene products (i.e., proteins) from genetically modified food organisms as food additives. Whether invoking section 402 or 409, the FDA requires the manufacturer to show that a new food is unlikely to cause harm. For transgenic crops, the manufacturer must show the new crop is substantially equivalent to the old crop (2).
EPA derives its authority from FIFRA (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act) to regulate pest control substances, including transgenic crops that produce a pest control effect. The gene product of a transgenic crop with pesticidal properties is treated as a pesticide residue and thus regulated under Section 408 of the FFDCA as amended by the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. EPA decides whether a tolerance is needed for residues appearing in the harvested crop or if residues can be exempted. In all cases, the legislative mandate behind regulation is a reasonable certainty that no human or environmental harm would accrue from exposure to a chemical in the crop or from deployment of the pest control technology. In the case of herbicide tolerant crops such as Roundup Ready products, the protein produced from the genetic engineering process is not pesticidal, therefore EPA did not need to establish a tolerance. Thus, APHIS and FDA shared the main responsibility for approving field trials of herbicide tolerant crops and safety of consuming the harvested commodity. However, because glyphosate (Roundup) would be used in fields while crops were growing, EPA had to assess the safety of the glyphosate residue tolerance and approve label changes.
Dr. Allan S. Felsot is an Environmental Toxicologist with WSU's Food and Environmental Quality Lab (FEQL), and a frequent contributor to this newsletter. He can be reached at email@example.com or (509) 372-7365.
In an ongoing effort to force a job offer from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Her Royal Highness The Queen Bee of Labels (HRH QBL, a.k.a. WSU's Jane M. Thomas) takes time out of her busy Royal Schedule periodically to point out oddities and aggravations on pesticide labels. It is the QBL's Opinion Most High that if she were in charge of all things label, a few RULES, combined with swift and thorough consequences for transgressors, would whip the whole pesticide label business into shape in a matter of weeks. Until such time as EPA sees the light and appoints HRH QBL to her rightful position, The Queen shall content herself with commentary, including nominations for the Non-Anom Awards, a new industry standard for particularly pathetic, aggrievedly awful, and terribly tacky pesticide labels. For background on this ongoing saga, see "If I Were the Queen of Labels," AENews No. 169, May 2000. For details on the Non-Anoms, see "QBL II," AENews No. 171, July 2000.
Alas, the file cabinets at the Pesticide Information Center at Washington State University indeed contain a treasure trove of potential "Non-Anom" award winners. Following are but two of the pearls of profundity that crossed my desk this month. Sound the trumpets, please!
First, in the Most Glaring Error category, is Pace International's Deadline-40 label. It contains the following language in the use directions: "Seed Grasses: alfalfa, clover, flowers, grasses and vegetables grown for seed." Now, why would a registrant include flowers and vegetables in a listing of seed grasses? A quick Royal Inquisition revealed that the label should have read "seed crops" not "seed grasses." What was EPA thinking when they saw seed grasses followed by flowers and vegetables? Speaking of grassesmethinks someone in the loop is, indeed, inhaling.
The second entrant this month comes under the Most Confusing Language category. It's an entry shared by two: Regal Chemical Company's Systec 1998 and Systec 1998 WDG labels. Both contain the following wording under the use directions for "Ornamentals (Field and Greenhouse)": "may be used to control the listed diseases on noncommercial bearingfruit trees." One wonders how bearing fruit trees could be included as a field and/or greenhouse ornamental. In a state of high(ness) confusion, HRH The QBL called the registrant and was informed that this language was intended to allow use on homeowner fruit trees. Under "Ornamentals (Field and Greenhouse)?" We don't think so. Maybe in Georgia, but that's not the way it is in Washington! Here ornamental is ornamental and bearing is bearing and ne'er the twain shall meet.
Watch future issues of AENews for more Non-Anom nominations and feel free to submit your favorites to HRH The QBL at firstname.lastname@example.org.
|For those readers new to these pages, "Non-Anom" is short for "Non-Anomaly." When the QBL first began pointing out breathtakingly queer labels, she considered calling them "Label Anomalies." But since "anomaly" is defined as "a departure from the regular arrangement, general rule, or regular practice," and the QBL holds that pesticide labels seem to follow NO general rules or practices, she has dubbed this dubious distinction "Non-Anomaly," or "Non-Anom."|
Washington State University offers PRE-LICENSE courses (for those who do not have a license and need one) and RECERTIFICATION courses (for those who need to renew their current licenses). Fees are $35 per day if postmarked 14 days before the program, otherwise $50 per day. This fee DOES NOT include WSDA license test fee, which ranges from $25 to $170; for information on testing and fees, contact WSDA at (360) 902-2020 or http://www.wa.gov/agr/pmd/licensing/index.htm. Recertification courses offer 6 credits per day.
In contrast to the usually more sober contributors to the Agrichemical and Environmental News, Dear Aggie deals light-heartedly with the peculiarities that cross our paths and helps decipher the enigmatic and clarify the obscure. Questions may be e-mailed to Dear Aggie at email@example.com. Opinions are Aggie's and do not reflect those of WSU.
I recently heard about several neighborhood pets being accidentally poisoned by strychnine. As the owner of the world's sweetest 100-pound, free-range dog, I am concerned that my dog may be poisoned by someone trying to control gophers in the neighborhood. Is strychnine readily available to homeowners?
Since I don't want anyone to know that I am so irresponsible as to let my pooch wander the neighborhood, please just sign me--
Petrified Pet Owner.
There is an interesting story to tell about
strychnine. Most commercial strychnine poisons are federally designated
as restricted-use pesticides (a.k.a. RUPs) and are labeled as
such. In Washington State, strychnine is also listed in WAC 16-228-1230
(2) as a state restricted-use product. Thus, distribution, sale,
and use of all strychnine should be limited. However, Section
3 of WAC 16-228-1230 states that the state restricted-use requirements
do not apply to home and garden products. In fact, there are several
home and garden strychnine products currently registered for use
in Washington and not federally designated as RUPs. This matter
was recently brought to WSDA's attention, and efforts are underway
to change the regulations. In the meantime, your neighbor may
lawfully put your pet at risk. And, sorry to be the one to break
the news, but none of the proposed regulations address your neighbor's
ability to purchase strychnine products in bordering states or
over the Internet. So put that in your trap and bait it.
Return to Table of Contents for the August 2000 issue
In reviewing the June postings in the Federal Register, we found the following items that may be of interest to the readers of Agrichemical and Environmental News.
In the June 1 Federal Register, EPA published a guidance document on applying data requirements for the establishment or continuance of tolerances for pesticide residues in or on imported foods. EPA is soliciting input on the guidance put forth in this notice. (Page 35069)
In the June 2 Federal Register, EPA announced its proposal to revoke tolerances for methyl parathion on: apples, artichokes, beets (greens alone), beets (with or without tops), birdsfoot trefoil forage, birdsfoot trefoil hay, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, carrots, cauliflower, celery, cherries, collards, grapes, kale, lentils, kohlrabi, lettuce, mustard greens, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums (fresh prunes), rutabagas (with or without tops), rutabaga tops, spinach, tomatoes, turnips (with or without tops), turnip greens, leafy Brassica vegetables (cole), and vetch. In addition, EPA proposes to amend the tolerances for beans peas to cover the dried commodities only. (Note that methyl parathion may still be used on lentils. Residues on lentils are covered by the tolerance for peas, dried.) Comments on this proposed action were to have been submitted to EPA on or before August 1, 2000. (Page 35307)
In the June 7 Federal Register, EPA announced that it had received a request from Roses, Inc. (who represents rose growers throughout the US) for an exemption from some of the restricted entry provisions of the Worker Protection Standards for rose harvesters. This exemption would allow harvesters to enter greenhouses to cut roses before the REIs have expired. This request is for a five year exemption and is similar to an earlier exemption granted by EPA that was in effect from 12/8/96 to 10/4/99. Comments on this request must be submitted to EPA on or before August 7, 2000. (Page 36134)
In the June 14 Federal Register, EPA announced that the revised risk assessment and related documents for dicrotophos are available for review and comment. Comments should be submitted to EPA on or before August 14. These documents are available on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/op/dicrotophos.htm. (Page 37371)
In the June 22 Federal Register, EPA issued a final rule revising the tolerances for azinphos-methyl by revoking specific tolerances and modifying specific other tolerances. The changes presented in this final rule become effective September 20, 2000. With this action EPA has done the following: Revoked the tolerances for sugarcane; apricots; artichokes; barley, grain; barley, straw; beans (dry); gooseberries; grass, pasture (green); grass, pasture, hay; kiwi fruit; oats, grain; oats, straw; peas, black-eyed; rye, grain; rye, straw; soybeans; wheat, grain; wheat, straw; pomegranates; sugarcane bagasse; citrus pulp, dried; and soybean oil. EPA also revoked 13 meat, milk, poultry and egg (MMPE) tolerances and is removing the tolerance for nectarines because its is covered by the tolerance for peaches. EPA has also reduced several tolerances as follows: apples, crabapples, pears, and quinces from 2.0 ppm to 1.5 ppm; cranberries from 2.0 ppm to 0.5 ppm; grapes from 5.0 ppm to 4.0 ppm; and potatoes from 0.3 to 0.2 ppm. (Page 38748)
In the June 23 Federal Register, EPA announced that the revised version of the pesticide science policy document entitled "Guidance for Refining Anticipated Residue Estimates For Use in Acute Dietary Probabilistic Risk Assessment" is now available. EPA has also incorporated into this document two other policy documents that were previously issued for public comment: "Guidance for the Conduct of Bridging Studies for Use in Acute Dietary Probabilistic Risk Assessment" and "Guidance for the Conduct of Residue Decline Studies for Use in Acute Dietary Probabilistic Risk Assessment." An electronic copy of this document is available on the web at the following URL: http://www.epa.gov/fedrgstr/EPA-PEST/2000/June/Day-23/o-p15917.htm. (Page 39147)
In the June 28 Federal Register, EPA announced that the preliminary human health and ecological risk assessments were available for oxamyl, tri-allate, and etridiazole (terrazole). There is no formal comment period for these risk assessment documents; however, EPA has indicated that comments submitted within the next 30 days will most likely be considered. These documents are on the Internet at http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/reregistration/. (Page 39898)
In the June 30 Federal register, EPA announced
that it was soliciting comments on the pesticide draft science
policy paper "Proposed Guidance on Cumulative Risk Assessment
of Pesticide Chemicals That Have a Common Mechanism of Toxicity."
Comments on this document must be submitted to EPA on or before
August 28, 2000. Electronically, this document is available under
the Science Policies information at URL: http://www.epa.gov/pesticides/. (Page 40644)
Return to Table of Contents for the August 2000 issue
The PNN is operated by WSU's Pesticide Information Center for the Washington State Commission on Pesticide Registration. The system is designed to distribute pesticide registration and label change information to groups representing Washington's pesticide users. PNN notifications are now available on our web page. To review those sent out in the month two months prior to this issue's date, either access the PNN page via the Pesticide Information Center On-Line (PICOL) Main Page on URL http://picol.cahe.wsu.edu/ or directly via URL http://www.tricity.wsu.edu/~mantone/pl-newpnn.html. We hope that this new electronic format will be useful. Please let us know what you think by submitting comments via e-mail to Jane Thomas at firstname.lastname@example.org.
Washington Pest Consultants Association organizes an annual series of collection dates and sites for empty pesticide containers. Dates and locations are subject to change; it may be wise to confirm with a telephone call before participating. Contact telephone numbers for specific events are given in the table below. For general questions, or if you are interested in hosting an event at your farm, business, or in a central location in your area, contact Northwest Ag Plastics representative Clarke Brown at (509) 965-6809 or David Brown at (509) 469-2550 or email@example.com. More information on pesticide waste and container recycling is available on the WSU Pesticide and Environmental Stewardship site.
|Aug. 1||8a-11a||St John||McGregor's||Rick Bafus||(509) 648-3218|
|2p-4p||Mockonema||McGregor's||Dale Deerkop||(509) 635-1591|
|Aug. 2||8a-11a||Garfield||Cascade Flying Service||Doran Rogers||(509) 635-1212|
|1p-4p||Palouse||Dale's Flying Service||Dale Schoeflin||(509) 878-1531|
|Aug. 3||8a-10a||Pullman||McGregor's||Larry Schlenker||(509) 332-2551|
|1p-3p||Dusty||Dusty Farm Co-Op Inc.||John Stoner||(509) 397-3111|
|Aug. 4||8a-11a||Clarkston||Valley Helo Service||James D. Pope||(509) 758-1900|
|1p-3p||Pomeroy||McGregor's||Mark Welter||(509) 843-1468|
|Aug. 8||8a-11a||Dayton||McGregor's||Doug Wendt||(509) 382-4704|
|1p-4p||Waitsburg||McGregor's||Terry Jacoy||(509) 337-6621|
|Aug. 9||8a-11a||Eltopia||Wilbur Ellis||Vern Record||(509) 297-4304|
|1p-3p||Pasco||Pfister Crop Care||Steve Pfister||(509) 297-4304|
|4p-5p||Pasco, Kahlotus Rd.||Air Trac||Gerald Titus||(509) 547-5301|
|Aug. 10||8a-10a||Eltopia||Eastern Wa Spray Service||Willis Maxson||(509) 297-4387|
|11a-2p||Connell||B&R Crop Care||Chris Eskildsen||(509) 234-7791|
|4p-6p||Othello||B&H Ag Chemical||Larry Hawley||(509) 488-6576|
|Aug. 11||8a-11a||Othello Airport||Conner Flying Inc.||Mark Conner||(509) 488-2921|
|2p-5p||Moses Lake||Moses Lake Air Service||Perry Davis||(509) 765-7689|
|Aug. 14||8a-11a||Quincy||Wilbur Ellis||Dale Martin||(509) 787-4433|
|1p-3p||Quincy||Quincy Flying Service||Richard Weaver||(509) 787-3223|
|Aug. 15||8a-10a||Royal City||Cenex||Ted Freeman||(509) 346-2213|
|11a-1p||Royal City||Saddle Mountain||Mike Pack||(509) 346-2291|
|2p-5p||Mattawa||Wilbur Ellis||Al Hilliker||(509) 932-4988|
|Aug. 16||8a-11a||Ephrata||The Crop Duster||Martin Shaw||(509) 754-3461|
|1p-3p||White Trail||The Crop Duster||Martin Shaw||(509) 754-3461|
|Aug. 21||8a-11a||Toppenish||Western Farm Service||Steve Laws||(509) 865-2045|
|1p-4p||Harrah||Husch & Husch||Allen Husch||(509) 848-2951|
|Aug. 22||8a-11a||Cowiche||D&M Chemical||Dee Gargus||(509) 678-5750|
|Sept. 5||8a-11a||Chelan||Northwest Wholesale||Herb Teas||(509) 662-2141|
|Sept. 6||8a-11a||WenatcheeTree Fruit Stn.||Fieldmen's Assoc.||Floyd Stutzman||(509) 669-0420|
|Sept. 11||9a-11a||St John||Gossard Aviation Inc.||Wesley Gossard||(509) 648-3722|
|1p-3p||Pine City||Reed Aviation||Pete Reed||(509) 523-3950|
|Sept. 12||8a-10a||Warden||Kilmer Crop Dusting||Terry Kilmer||(509) 349-2491|
|11a-1p||Bruce||Simplot||Chuck Spytex||(509) 488-2132|
|3p-5p||Othello||South Saddle Orchard||Mike Macy||(509) 539-5836|
|Sept. 14||8a-11a||Zillah||Bleyhl Farm Service||Ray Oversby||(509) 829-6922|
|Oct. 3||9a-10a||Ellensburg||DOT||Susanne Tarr||(509) 962-7577|
|Oct. 13||8a-3p||Othello||Conner Flying Inc.||Mark Conner||(509) 488-2921|
|Oct. 16||8a-10a||Waterville||Western Farm Service||Dale Gromley||(509) 745-8857|
|11a-2p||Coulee City||Western Farm Service||Pete Thiry||(509) 632-5697|
|3p-5p||Ephrata||The Crop Duster||Martin Shaw||(509) 754-3461|
|Oct. 17||8a-11a||Wilbur Airport||Greg's Crop Care||Greg Leyva||(509) 647-2441|
|1p-4p||Davenport Airport||Northwest Aviation Inc.||Lee Swain||(509) 725-0011|
|Oct. 18||8a-Noon||Rosalia||Western Farm Service||John Hartley||(509) 523-6811|
|1p-3p||Mockonema||McGregor's||Dale Deerkop||(509) 635-1591|
|Oct. 19||8a-10a||Connell||B&R Aerial Crop Care||Chris Eskildsen||(509) 234-7791|
|1p-3p||Pasco, Kahlotus Rd.||Air Trac||Gerald Titus||(509) 547-5301|
222 N Havana
|WSDA||Tim Schultz||(509) 533-2690|
|WSU||Jim Lindstrom||(509) 533-2686|
|11a-1p||Mead||Cenex||Todd Race||(509) 466-5192|
|3p-5p||Deer Park||Inland Agronomy||Jim McAdams||(509) 276-2611|
|Oct. 26||9a-Noon||Coulee City||Cenex||Huck Dilling||(509) 632-5292|
|1p-3p||Almira||Cenex||Don Felker||(509) 639-2421|
|Oct. 27||8a-Noon||Moses Lake||Tom Dent Aviation||Tom Dent||(509) 765-6926|
|2p-5p||Warden||Kilmer Crop Dusting||Terry Kilmer||(509) 349-2491|
|Oct. 30||9a-3p||Outlook||Snipes Mtn. Trans. Stn.||Mark Nedrow||(509) 574-2472|
|Oct. 31||8:30a-3p||Yakima||Terrace Hts. Landfill||Mark Nedrow||(509) 574-2472|
|Chemical Type||Federal Register||Tolerance (ppm)||Commodity (raw)||
|imidacloprid (insecticide)||6/8/00 pg. 36367||3.5||prunes||Yes||New||12/31/01|
|1||stone fruit (Crop Group 12)|
|Comment: These tolerances are being established in response to EPA granting Section 18 emergency exemptions for the use of imidacloprid for aphid control in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New York, and New Jersey.|
|cyprodinil (fungicide)||6/12/00 pg. 36790||5||strawberries||Yes||Extension||5/31/01|
|Comment: This time-limited tolerance is being extended in response to EPA again granting a Section 18 emergency exemption for the use of cyprodinil to control gray mold on South Carolina strawberries.|
|cloquintocet-mexyl (herbicide safener)||6/22/00 pg. 38757||0.1||wheat; grain & forage||No||N/A||N/A|
|0.1||wheat; hay & straw|
|clodinafop-propargyl (herbicide)||6/22/00 pg. 38765||0.5||wheat; straw||No||N/A||N/A|
|0.1||wheat; grain, forage, & hay|
|prallethrin (insecticide)||6/26/00 pg. 39304||1||see below||No||N/A||N/A|
|This tolerance is for residues of prallethrin in or on all food items in food handling establishments where food and food products are held, processed, prepared, and/or served.|
This table presents a condensed list of potential IR-4 projects already proposed for 2001. See related article at beginning of this electronic newsletter. The table is organized by chemistry group (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides), then by crop. Each chemistry group also includes a section labeled "Performance Trials." Where IR-4 historically looks at residue data, items in the Performance Trials section are requests for efficacy data (in the case of herbicides, performance trials look for phytotoxicity). Any questions may be addressed to IR-4 State Representative Liaison Dr. Douglas B. Walsh at firstname.lastname@example.org.
|fludioxonil||apple||Penicillium expansum, P. solitum, Botrytis cinerea, Pezicula malicorticis||WA|
|fenhexamid||apple (post harvest)||gray mold||CA|
|imazalil||apricot (post harvest)||brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest)||SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||asparagus||Stemphylium purple spot||MI|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||bean (dry)||white & gray molds||NY|
|trifloxystrobin||bean (dry)||white & gray molds||NY|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||bean (lima)||white & gray molds||NY|
|dimethomorph||bean (lima)||downy mildew, Phytophthora phaesoli||DE, ON, BC|
|propamocarb-hcl||bean (lima)||downy mildew, Phytophthora phaesoli||DE|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||bean (snap)||white & gray molds||NY|
|fluazinam||bean (snap)||white & gray molds||NY|
|trifloxystrobin||bean (snap)||white & gray molds||NY|
|harpin||blueberry||mummyberry, Botrytis, Alternaria||MI|
|tebuconazole||blueberry||rust, Septoria leaf spots||FL, SC|
|dimethomorph||broccoli||downy mildew||AZ, TN, CA,|
|fenhexamid||broccoli||gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea||WA|
|zoxamide||broccoli||Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew)||AZ|
|dimethomorph||cabbage||downy mildew||OR, TN, CA|
|azoxystrobin||cabbage, chinese||powdery mildew||TX|
|myclobutanil||cabbage, chinese||powdery mildew||TX|
|harpin||caneberry||mummyberry, Botrytis, Alternaria||MI|
|ferbam||caneberry (blackberry)||blossom, foliar stem diseases||SC, AL, MS, NC, OR, SC|
|mefenoxam + copper||caneberry (raspberry)||downy mildew||WA, CA, OR|
|myclobutanil||caneberry (raspberry)||rust sp., powdery mildew||VA, OH, TN, WV, WA, PA, OR, SC, GA|
|tebuconazole||carrot||Alternaria, Sclerotinia, Rhizoctonia||NY|
|imazalil||cherry (post harvest)||brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest)||SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY|
|tebuconazole||coriander||Cercospora, powdery mildew||TX|
|trifloxystrobin||coriander||Alternaria, Cercospora, powdery mildew||TX|
|ferbam||cranberry||fruit rots, twig blight, fairy ring||WI, MA, WA|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||cucumber||Alternaria leaf blights||NC|
|fenhexamid||cucumber||gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea||WA|
|chlorothalonil||gingseng||Alternaria blight, downy mildew||NC, KY, TX, SC, WI, GA|
|acibenzolar||grape||downy mildew, leaf spot||MI|
|dimethomorph||grape||Plasmopara (downy mildew)||GA|
|ferbam||grape||black rot||NY, OH, MI, MO, AR, SC, MS|
|famoxate + cymoxanil||hops||hop downy mildew||WA|
|chlorothalonil||lentil||anthracnose, Ascochyta||ND, WA, ID|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||lettuce (head & leaf)||Alternaria, Septoria, Botrytis, Sclerotinia||FL, OR, OH|
|fenhexamid||lettuce (head & leaf)||gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea||WA|
|myclobutanil||lettuce (head & leaf)||powdery mildew||AZ, MI|
|zoxamide||lettuce (head & leaf)||Bremia lactucae (downy mildew)||AZ, CA, WA|
|imazalil||nectarine (post harvest)||brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest)||SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY, GA|
|trifloxystrobin||onion||Botrytis & Alternaria foliar blights||MI|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||onion (green & dry bulb)||Botrytis, Alternaria, Sclerotinia||TX|
|azoxystrobin||parsley||Alternaria, Septoria||FL, OR, TX|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||parsley||Alternaria, Septoria||FL, OR, OH|
|tebuconazole||parsley||powdery mildew, Alternaria leaf spot||TX|
|trifloxystrobin||parsley||Alternaria, Cercospora, powdery mildew||TX|
|hymexazol||pea (succulent)||common root rot||MN|
|imazalil||peach (post harvest)||brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest)||SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY, GA|
|sodium tetrathiocarbonate||pear||oak root fungus, nematodes, general soil replant problems||CA|
|fenhexamid||pear (post harvest)||gray mold||CA, WA|
|ferbam||plum||cherry leafspot, brown rot||SC, MI|
|imazalil||plum (post harvest)||brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest)||SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY, GA|
|PCNB||radish||scab, clubroot||NC,MI, VA, OK, SC, OR|
|chlorothalonil||rhubarb||Ramularia leaf & stalk spot||WA, OR|
|BAS 500||spinach||CA, OR|
|mefenoxam||spinach||white rust||TX, SC, CA, TN, OK|
|zoxamide||spinach||white rust, downy mildew||TX, TN, CA, OH, NJ, NC, CO|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||squash||Alternaria leaf blights||NC|
|fenhexamid||squash||gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea||WA|
|quinoxyfen||squash (winter)||powdery mildew||NC|
|acibenzolar||strawberry||downy mildew, leaf spot||MI|
|cyprodinil + fludioxonil||strawberry||Botrytis, Colletotrichum||GA, SC, OR, CA, MI, NY, TN, NC, CT|
|harpin||strawberry||leaf spot, Botrytis||MI|
|fenhexamid||tomato||Botrytis||MI, CA, WA|
|fenhexamid||tomato||gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea||WA|
|mefenoxam||turnip (roots & tops)||Phytophthora||TN, GA|
|azoxystrobin||asparagus||Stemphylium purple spot||MI|
|fludioxonil||asparagus||Fusarium crown and root rot||MI|
|propamocarb-hcl||bean||Pythium root rot||WA, OR|
|azoxystrobin||blueberry||mummyberry, Alternaria fruit rot, Phomopsis stem canker, anthracnose fruit||MI, SC, GA, IN, OR, DE, NC|
|kresoxim-methyl||blueberry||Alternaria fruit rot, Botrytis, Phomopsis, mummyberry||MI, SC, GA, IN, NC|
|serenade||blueberry||Alternaria, Botrytis||OR, MI|
|azoxystrobin||broccoli||foliar diseases, downy mildew, Alternaria||TX, OR|
|azoxystrobin||cabbage||foliar diseases, downy mildew, Alternaria||TX, NY|
|azoxystrobin||cabbage, chinese||white rust||CA|
|copper hydroxide||cabbage, chinese||white rust (albugo)||HI|
|azoxystrobin||caneberry (blackberry)||many pathogens||GA, SC, DE|
|kresoxim-methyl||caneberry (blackberry)||many pathogens||GA, SC|
|azoxystrobin||caneberry (raspberry)||many pathogens||GA, SC, DE|
|kresoxim-methyl||caneberry (raspberry)||many pathogens||GA, SC|
|BAS 500||carrot||Alternaria, Cercospora||MI|
|sodium tetrathiocarbonate||cherry||nematodes, Phytophthora root rot, oak root fungus||CA|
|acibenzolar||coriander||bacterial leaf spot||FL, OR|
|azoxystrobin||coriander||Alternaria, Cercospora, powdery mildew||TX|
|BAS 500||cucumber||Phytophthora||TN, MI|
|acibenzolar||lettuce (head & leaf)||bacterial leaf spot||FL, OR, CA|
|azoxystrobin||mint (fresh)||Pythium, Rhizoctonia foliar blight||FL|
|oxamyl||mint (fresh)||root lesion mint nematode||FL|
|propiconazole||mint (fresh)||Rhizoctonia foliar blight||FL|
|BAS 500||onion||Alternaria, Botrytis, downy mildew||MI|
|azoxystrobin||pea (succulent)||downy mildew, Phytophthora phaesoli, Colletotrichum||HQ|
|propiconazole||radish||Septoria (early blight)||CA, OR|
|BAS 500||squash||Phytophthora||TN, NC, MI|
|BAS 500||strawberry||broad spectrum disease control||TN|
|kresoxim-methyl||strawberry||Phomopsis, Septoria, Colletotrichum, Rhizoctonia, anthracnose||GA, SC, NC|
|serenade||strawberry||Botrytis, bacterial leaf spot||MI, OH, NC|
|chlorothalonil||tomato||Botrytis cinerea||MI, GA, CA|
|kresoxim-methyl||tomato||Septoria & Alternaria foliar blights, fruit rots||MI|
|azoxystrobin||turnip (roots & tops)||white rust||TX, FL|
|bentazon||apple||yellow nutsedge||VA, NC, NJ, NY|
|clethodim||apple||annual & perennial grasses||CA, TN, CO, ID, NY|
|fluroxypyr||apple||woody perennial broadleaf weeds||NC, SC, GA, WA, TN|
|halosulfuron||apple||nutsedge, broadleaf weeds||NC|
|sulfentrazone||apple||nutsedge, broadleaf weeds||NC|
|glyphosate||bean (dry)||desiccation & late season weed control to improve harvest efficiency||WI, NY, WA, MI, ND, ID, SD|
|clethodim||bean (lima)||annual & perennial grasses||FL, TN, NC, WA, MS|
|clethodim||bean (snap)||annual & perennial grasses||NY, FL, PR, TN, AR, NC, OR, TX|
|azafenidin||blueberry||annual weeds||MI, SC, NC, ME, OR, TN|
|clethodim||blueberry||annual & perennial grasses||FL, AR, OR, WA, MS, GA, TN, ME, NY|
|metolachlor||blueberry||nutsedge||OR, VA, OK, AR, NY, SC, NC, WA, MS|
|thiazopyr||blueberry||annual & perennial broadleaf weeds and crabgrass||SC, NC, CA, TN|
|clomazone||broccoli||annual weeds, velvet leaf||WI, WA, OR, AR, GA, NC, KY, TN, VA, TX|
|metolachlor||broccoli||galinsoga, pineapple weed||OR, NJ, NC, OK, NY, KY, TN, AR|
|sulfentrazone||broccoli||annual broadleaf weeds||AZ|
|sethoxydim||buckwheat||annual grasses||MN, ND, WA|
|metolachlor||cabbage, chinese||weeds||OR, HI, OK, FL, MI|
|2, 4-D (amine)||caneberry (raspberry)||broadleaf weeds||OR, VA, WA|
|clethodim||caneberry (raspberry)||grass weeds||OR, WA, NY|
|glufosinate||caneberry (raspberry)||primocane suppression||OR, WA|
|thiazopyr||caneberry (raspberry)||horseweed, fleabane, nutsedge||CA, OR|
|glyphosate||canola||harvest aid/spot treatment||ND, GA|
|glyphosate||canola||annual & perennial grass, broadleaf weeds||ND|
|pendimethalin||canola||annual grass, broadleaf weeds||ND, NM|
|thifensulfuron-methyl||canola||annual broadleaf weeds||ND|
|clethodim||cherry||annual grasses||CA, OR, ID, NY|
|clopyralid||cherry||Canada thistle, goldenrod, wild aster||NJ, CA, OR, WA|
|2, 4-DB||clover||weeds||OH, WA, GA, VA, NY, CA, NC|
|imazamox||clover (seed)||annual weeds||CA|
|oxyfluorfen||clover (seed)||weeds||CA, VA, WA, OR|
|rimsulfuron||cranberry||asters, narrow-leaved goldenrod, buttercup, yellow loosestrife, yellow nutsedge||MA|
|triclopyr||cranberry||woody perennial weeds||MA|
|triflusulfuron-methyl||cranberry||buttercup, yellow loosestrife, lotus, silverleaf, aster, sedges||MA|
|oxyfluorfen||cucumber||broadleaf weeds||NY, TN, PR, AR|
|paraquat||cucumber||weeds||NC, MI, FL, AR, CA, OK, NY, GA, TN|
|pyrithiobac||cucumber||broadleaf & grassy weeds||TX|
|halosulfuron||grape||nutsedge, broadleaf weeds||NC|
|sulfentrazone||grape||nutsedge, broadleaf weeds||NC|
|sethoxydim||grasses||annual & perennial grasses||OR|
|norflurazon||grasses (bermuda)||crabgrass, goosegrass, broadleaf signal grass||GA|
|clethodim||grasses (fescue)||reduce stem formation by killing the vernalized growing plant||MO|
|terbacil||grasses (seed)||rattail fescue, downy brome, annual bluegrass, volunteer seedling||OR|
|clethodim||lettuce (head)||annual & perennial weeds||TX, CA|
|ethephon||lettuce (head)||inhibitor of head formations||CA|
|glyphosate||lettuce (head)||weeds||MI, OR|
|asulam||mint||annual grasses, common groundsel||WA|
|flumioxazin||onion||annual weeds||MI, CO, NY|
|dimethenamid-p||onion (green)||broadleaf weeds||OR|
|clethodim||pea (dry)||annual & perennial grasses||WA, OR|
|clomazone||pea (dry)||broadleaf & grassy weeds||SD|
|MCPA||pea (dry)||weeds||SD, MN, NY, WI, ND, MI, WA|
|sulfentrazone||pea (dry)||broadleaf weeds||ND, SD|
|paraquat||pea (pigeon)||annual & perennial weeds||FL|
|clethodim||pea (succulent)||annual & perennial grasses||NY, FL, AR, TX, WA, OK|
|halosulfuron||pea (succulent)||broadleaf weeds||NY|
|sulfentrazone||pea (succulent)||weeds||NY, WI, IL, WA, GA, MS|
|clethodim||peach||annual grasses||CA, TN, ID, NY|
|clopyralid||peach||Canada thistle, goldenrod, wild aster||NJ, VA, CA, OR, NC, MS, WA|
|halosulfuron||peach||nutsedge, broadleaf weeds||NC|
|sulfentrazone||peach||nutsedge, broadleaf weeds||NC|
|clethodim||pear||annual & perennial grasses||CA, ID, NY|
|fluroxypyr||pear||woody perennial broadleaf weeds||NC, SC, GA, WA|
|clopyralid||plum||Canada thistle, goldenrod, wild aster||NJ, VA, CA, OR|
|halosulfuron||potato||broadleaf weeds||NY, ID, TN, CA, CO, WA, FL|
|sulfentrazone||potato||broadleaf weeds||ND, CO, NY|
|halosulfuron||pumpkin||nutsedge||TN, IL, TX|
|bensulide||radish||purslane, pigweed, lambsquarters, nettle weeds||CA, OR, TN|
|linuron||spinach||chickweed, winter annual broadleaf weeds||MD, TX|
|dimethenamid-p||squash||annual grasses, pigweed, black nightshade, annual broadleaf weeds||OR, ON, QC, BC|
|ethephon||squash||promote maturity||TN, MA|
|oxyfluorfen||squash (summer)||broadleaf weeds||NJ|
|paraquat||squash (summer)||weeds||NC, FL, OR, NY, TN, OH, MS|
|pyrithiobac||squash (summer)||broadleaf & grass weeds||TX|
|sulfentrazone||squash (winter)||nightshade, pigweed, lambsquarters weeds||OR, IL|
|glyphosate||strawberry||weed control||MD, WV, AR, CA, WA, OR, FL, LA, MI, MD, NH, NY|
|glyphosate||strawberry||weeds||TN, NC, MI, TX|
|prohexadione calcium||strawberry||reduce runner growth & increase yield||FL|
|2, 4-D (amine)||strawberry (annual)||broadleaf weeds||NC|
|oxyfluorfen||strawberry (annual)||broadleaf weeds||TN, OK, UT, OR, NC, VA, AR, FL|
|bensulide||strawberry (perennial)||broadleaf weeds||NC|
|bromoxynil||sweet corn||broadleaf weeds||WI, NY|
|dimethenamid-p||turnip (roots)||broadleaf weeds||OR|
|paraquat||watermelon||weeds||NC, WA, OR, NY, PR, TN, TX, AR|
|sethoxydim||watermelon||annual grasses||MD, ON, BC|
|sulfentrazone||bean (dry)||early season weeds||MN, ND|
|pyridate||broccoli||broadleaf weeds||VA, WI, FL, TN|
|oxyfluorfen||broccoli, chinese||weeds||FL, AZ|
|pyridate||cabbage||annual broadleaf weeds||WI, VA|
|clopyralid||cabbage, chinese||broadleaf weeds||NJ, NY|
|pendimethalin||cabbage, chinese||weeds, grasses||TN, NY, ON, QC, BC|
|oxyfluorfen||caneberry (blackberry)||primocanes||VA, CA|
|chlorimuron ethyl||cranberry||saw brier, white violet, aster||MA, OR, WA|
|rimsulfuron||cranberry||asters, narrow-leaved goldenrod, buttercup, yellow loosestrife, yellow nutsedge||MA|
|triflusulfuron-methyl||cranberry||buttercup, yellow loosestrife, lotus, silverleaf, aster, sedges||MA|
|sulfentrazone||lentil||broadleaf weeds||ND, SD|
|carfentrazone-ethyl||onion (dry bulb)||broadleaf weeds||TX|
|metolachlor||parsley||annual grasses, broadleaf weeds||FL, TX, GA, MD|
|metolachlor||pea (pigeon)||weeds||FL, AR|
|metribuzin||pea (succulent)||broadleaf & grass weeds||NY, WA, OR, MS, WI|
|metolachlor||pumpkin||annual grasses, hairy galinsoga, yellow nutsedge, broadleaf weeds||NY, MS, TN, GA, TX, ON, QC, BC|
|sulfentrazone||pumpkin||weeds, pigweed||IL, MS, TX, GA, TN|
|metolachlor||squash||grasses, broadleaf weeds||TX, QC, ON, BC|
|sulfentrazone||strawberry||annual weeds||MI, CA, PA|
|metolachlor||turnip greens||weeds||AR, OR, TX, TN, CO|
|metolachlor||turnip greens||plantback restrictions||TN, GA|
|halosulfuron||watermelon||nutsedge, broadleaf weeds||AR, MD, NC, TX, TN|
|methoxyfenozide||alfalfa||beet armyworm, alfalfa caterpillar||CA|
|spinosad||alfalfa||Lepidoptera larvae, beet worm, bollworm, alfalfa caterpillar||TX|
|fenpropathrin||barley||thrips, cereal leaf beetle, aphids||ID|
|bifenthrin||bean (dry)||mites, lygus, Lepidoptera, aphids||WA, CO, ID|
|zinc phosphide||bean (dry)||rodents, esp. mice||OK, GA|
|cyromazine||bean (snap)||leafminers||GA, TN, TX, FL, MS|
|methoxyfenozide||bean (succulent)||Lepidoptera larvae||TN, OR|
|ethyl acetate||beehives||Africanized honey bees||TX|
|fenpropathrin||blueberry||Japanese beetle, cranberry fruitworm, blueberry maggot, cherry fruitworm||MI|
|thiamethoxam||blueberry||Japanese beetle, blueberry aphid, rose chafer||MI|
|thiocloprid||blueberry||Japanese beetle, cranberry fruitworm, blueberry maggot, cherry fruitworm||MI|
|endosulfan||cabbage||onion thrips, western flower thrips||TX|
|naled||cabbage||diamondback caterpillar||FL, NC, CA, DE, TX|
|pyriproxyfen||cabbage||onion thrips, western flower thrips||TX|
|spinosad||cabbage||onion thrips, western flower thrips||TX|
|imidacloprid||caneberry||aphid, whitefly, leafhopper||CA, NC, WA, OR, PA|
|abamectin||caneberry (raspberry)||two spotted spider mites||CA, SC, DE, NC, WA|
|bifenazate||caneberry (raspberry)||spider mites||MI|
|endosulfan||canola||aphids, seed pod weevil, fleabeetle||KY|
|phosmet||canola||cabbage seed pod weevil||ID|
|methoxyfenozide||carrot||Lepidoptera larvae||CO, OR, WA|
|bifenazate||cherry||European red mites, two spotted spider mites||MI|
|buprofezin||cherry||San Jose scale||CA|
|thiamethoxam||cherry||plum curculio||ID, OR, WA, WI, MI|
|thiocloprid||cherry||cherry fruitworm, cherry fruitfly, plum curculio||MI|
|emamectin||cranberry||black headed fireworm, spotted fireworm, Sparganothis fruitworm||MA|
|bifenazate||cucumber||two spotted spider mites||NJ, TX, WI, ON, QC|
|pyriproxyfen||grape||grape berry moth||MI|
|methoxyfenozide||grasses||Lepidoptera larvae, fall armyworm, southern armyworm||TN, FL, LA|
|pyrethrin + pbo||grasses (pasture)||mosquito (adult)||CA|
|spinosad||grasses (pasture)||fire ants||GA, TX|
|pyridaben||mint||spider mites||FL, ID, OR|
|pyriproxyfen||onion (dry bulb)||onion thrips, western flower thrips||TX|
|thiamethoxam||onion (dry bulb)||soil-dwelling insects||TX, WA, OH, OR, ID, CO|
|emamectin||onion (green)||beet armyworm, European corn borer, Lepidoptera larvae||NJ|
|thiamethoxam||onion (green)||onion root maggots||CA, OR, CO, NJ|
|bifenthrin||pea (dry)||stinkbug, beetle sp., Lepidoptera complex||ID|
|methoxyfenozide||pea (dry)||Lepidoptera larvae||WA, TN|
|methoxyfenozide||pea (edible podded)||Lepidoptera larvae||TN|
|esfenvalerate||pea (pigeon)||pod borer||PR|
|indoxacarb||pea (southern)||Lepidoptera larvae||AR|
|methoxyfenozide||pea (succulent shelled)||Lepidoptera larvae||HQ|
|dimethoate||pea (succulent)||aphids, leafminers, thrips||WA, OR|
|buprofezin||peach||aphids, scales||TN, CO|
|thiocloprid||peach||cherry fruitworm, cherry fruitfly, plum curculio||MI|
|buprofezin||plum||aphids, scales||TN, CO|
|cyfluthrin + tebupirimphos||potato||wireworm||NC, ID|
|cyfluthrin||spinach||Lepidoptera larvae, grasshoppers||AR, OK|
|endosulfan||spinach||onion thrips, western flower thrips||TX|
|bifenazate||squash (summer)||two spotted spider mites||NJ, WI, TX|
|lambda-cyhalothrin||strawberry||adult root weevils||WA|
|methoxyfenozide||strawberry||beet armyworm, cutworms, corn earworm||CA, NC|
|methyl anthranilate||strawberry||bird repellent||FL|
|zinc phosphide||turnip (roots & tops)||rodents, esp. mice||AR, GA, FL|
|methoxyfenozide||turnip greens||Lepidoptera larvae||OK, CA|
|zeta cypermethrin||turnip greens||cabbage looper, diamondback moth caterpillar, beet armyworm, fall armyworm||TX, GA, CA|
|imidacloprid||blueberry (high bush)||blueberry maggot||MI|
|diflubenzuron||broccoli||Lepidoptera larvae||GA, OR, TN|
|fipronil||broccoli||root maggots, fleabeetles||NJ, OH, TX|
|fipronil||cabbage||root maggots, fleabeetles||NJ, OH, TX|
|thiamethoxam||cabbage||soil-dwelling insects||TX, NY, TN, OR, CO|
|thiodicarb||cabbage, chinese||Lepidoptera, fleabeetles||KY, CA|
|petroleum oils||caneberry (blackberry)||scales, mites, aphids||GA, OR, MS, AR|
|petroleum oils||caneberry (raspberry)||scales, mites, aphids||OR, GA, AR|
|fipronil||carrot||root maggots, fleabeetles||NJ, OH, TX|
|imidacloprid||onion (dry bulb)||onion maggot||NY|
|endosulfan||pea (pigeon)||Heliothis pod borer, leafhopper||FL|
|fipronil||radish||root maggots, fleabeetles||NJ, OH, TX|
|thiamethoxam||spinach||soil-dwelling insects||OK, TX|
|thiamethoxam||squash (summer)||soil-dwelling insects||TX|
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