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August 2000, Issue No. 172

A monthly report on environmental and pesticide related issues

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Open Forum: In an attempt to promote free and open discussion of issues, The Agrichemical and Environmental News encourages letters and articles with differing views. To discuss submission of an article, please contact Dr. Allan Felsot at 509-372-7365 or; Dr. Catherine Daniels at 509-372-7495 or; or Dr. Doug Walsh at 509-786-2226 or The newsletter is available in a hardcopy version for a $15 yearly subscription fee. Please contact newsletter editor Sally O'Neal Coates at 509-372-7378 or for details.

In This Issue

Input Needed Now for 2001 IR-4 Projects "Show Us the Data!" New FEQL Chemist Looks Ahead
Precision Ag Center Introduced at WSU Food Safety Conference Teems with Information (Part 2)
Regulating Herbicide Tolerant Plants QBL Speaks Out: Non-Anom Nominees
Dear Aggie PNN Update
Free Pesticide Disposal 2000 Pesticide Container Recycling Schedule
Federal Register Excerpts Tolerance Information

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Input Needed Now for 2001 IR-4 Projects

Dr. Douglas B. Walsh, State Liaison Representative, USDA/IR-4 Project

The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 changed the landscape of food safety and pesticide use. We are now in year four of the FQPA era. Revised risk assessments of pesticides--for better or worse--are being ground through the regulatory system. In many cases, pesticide uses are being curtailed or dramatically restricted. As the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency restricts the use of key pesticides, registration of alternative products becomes even more important. To increase the availability of crop protection chemistries for minor crop producers, the Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4) was established in 1963. IR-4 is a federal/state/private cooperative that aspires to obtain clearances for pest control chemistries on minor crops. (For a complete description of IR-4's workings see "IR-4: Developing and Delivering Pest Management Solutions for Minor Crop Producers," AENews No. 162, Oct. 1999.)

Prioritization Workshop in September

On September 11 through 13, 2000, the IR-4 prioritization workshop for year 2001 projects will take place in Orlando, Florida. Requests to IR-4 are many and the number of projects that can be funded and completed is limited.

Your Participation is Encouraged

As the Washington State Liaison to the IR-4 program and as a Commissioner on the Washington State Commission on Pesticide Registration, I need to know the pest control needs and concerns among the diverse agricultural producers of Washington State. This spring, I listed new pest control chemistries with registration potential at In this month's newsletter (see table at the end of this newsletter), you will find a condensed list of IR-4 projects that have already been proposed for the year 2001.

Submit a PCR Form

The first step toward making a pesticide need known is to submit a Pesticide Clearance Request form (PCR) to IR-4. Anyone can submit a PCR; parties in Washington State can obtain them from me. I can assist interested parties in prompt submission of the form and I can help bring those needs to the attention of IR-4 at the September meeting.

Individuals or groups wishing to initiate review of a particular crop-chemistry combination should look over the proposed list in the table below. If the crop-chemistry of interest is not already listed, contact me right away. On the other hand, don't hesitate to contact me if the project has been submitted by another state. Projects that have been requested by multiple states are more likely to be received positively by IR-4.

Washington State has a strong reputation for being proactive in pest control efforts. This is facilitated through communication between agricultural producers and university specialists. Please make your pest control needs and concerns known to me.

Dr. Douglas B. Walsh is the Washington State Liaison Representative for IR-4. His office is located at WSU's Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center (IAREC) in Prosser. He can be reached at or (509) 786-2226.

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Free Pesticide Disposal

The Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA), in cooperation with local agencies, will collect unusable pesticides from businesses and organizations at the following locations on the dates shown. Herbicides, fungicides, insecticides, rodenticides, fumigants, antibacterial materials, adjuvants, and other types of pesticides are accepted. (Please see related announcement below regarding a recent development affecting WSDA acceptance of materials containing regulated amounts of dioxin.) Businesses and organizations are usually expected to pay disposal fees for these materials, but this program is offered at no cost to help landscapers, exterminators, farmers, and others remove these materials from their premises.

















Moses Lake





Those wishing to participate in the pesticide disposal program must sign up in advance by calling WSDA at (360) 902-2056. Note the sign-up deadlines. Interested parties calling after the sign-up deadline may be accommodated on a space-available basis or at a future collection event.

The Waste Pesticide Program has operated in Washington State since 1988. Nearly seventy regional collection events have been held, and over 900,000 pounds of unusable pesticides have been collected from over 3250 participants.

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WSDA Ends Acceptance of Pesticides Containing Regulated Amounts of Dioxins

Safety-Kleen, Inc. has announced that they will quit accepting waste at their Coffeyville, Kansas, facility after August 31, 2000. The Coffeyville facility is the only site in the United States that is permitted to accept and dispose of materials that contain regulated amounts of dioxin. The facility will be mothballed after they destroy waste received by the deadline. Safety-Kleen is having financial difficulties and has not announced future plans for this facility.

This closure places many people in a bind including the Washington State Department of Agriculture (WSDA) Waste Pesticide Program. Unused 2,4,5-T, silvex and pentachlorophenol contain regulated amounts of dioxin and are tagged with the federal waste code of F027. Coffeyville is the only facility in the United States where WSDA can ship these F027 wastes. As a result, WSDA regrets that their disposal program will no longer be able to accept this waste stream following the collection event that will be held in Puyallup on August 24, 2000.

Small amounts of 2,4,5-T, silvex and pentachlorophenol that are disposed of by homeowners through household hazardous waste (HHW) programs are not affected by this announcement. HHW waste is exempt from the F027 waste code.

WSDA will still work with customers who have or find this waste by providing drums and other packaging at no cost to help ensure that these aging containers are stored safely by their owners until a disposal option arises in the future. Persons in need of assistance with these containers can contact the WSDA Waste Pesticide Program by at (360) 902-2056 or

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"Show Us the Data!"

New FEQL Chemist Looks Ahead

Dr. Vincent R. Hebert, Analytical Chemist, WSU

During my short time in Washington State (six days as of this writing), I have been amazed at the interest in environmental and agricultural issues expressed by people from various backgrounds. Washington citizens are not only interested in the sensitive issues immediately facing their state's agricultural production, they are knowledgeable about them and apparently eager to talk!

Two days ago, I stopped in the town of Starbuck on my way to visit Palouse Falls. There, I had the opportunity to listen to two local residents engage in a lively discussion on the 4(d) "take" rule of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) and its potential implications for regional agriculture. These gentlemen informed me that the National Marine Fisheries Service's (NMFS's) interpretation of "take" with respect to threatened and endangered steelhead and salmon populations could have major implications on current pesticide use and irrigation practices in the Columbia and Snake river basins. (ED. NOTE: In short, under the NMFS interpretation, you don't have to kill a species to "take" it--a variety of disturbances can be defined as "taking.") One of their major concerns was whether the proper use of currently registered herbicides, insecticides, and fungicides would be impacted by this rule. Because I lack familiarity with this issue, I could not offer an opinion. Instead, I asked, "If you knew that sound scientific information were available to address pesticide practices in the Snake and Columbia river basins, would you feel more comfortable with the decision-making process?" Without hesitation, they both said, "Show us the data!"

I believe that healthy public skepticism is not merely a good thing, it is an essential element in the democratic process. It is the catalyst for research in pursuit of accurate information, which in turn is the foundation for sound legislation. Providing sound scientific information to the public and to state and federal regulatory agencies will be my principal mission at the Food and Environmental Quality Lab (FEQL)--information that will assist in making informed judgments in environmental policy while protecting the rich diversity and productivity of Washington's agriculture.

The passage of the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) in 1996 dramatically changed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) mandate. Where EPA was once charged with the rather nebulous task of weighing benefits against risks, now they are required to establish exacting pesticide residue tolerances based on new and complex safety factors designed to protect the most sensitive population groups. With this change comes enormous pressure to develop and maintain a diverse arsenal of integrated pest management tools for protecting the environment for future generations while ensuring the quality of the food supply. My work to expand the Good Laboratory Practices (GLP) program here at the FEQL will be an integral component in meeting the requirements of state and federal regulators so they can address these challenges. Combined with the efforts of commodity grower groups and the Interregional Research Project Number 4 (IR-4), my work here will provide information that will accelerate needed registrations of alternative chemistries for the diverse crops in this state.

Meanwhile, the next time I'm in Starbuck, I hope I can assuage some local skepticism (or at least add to the knowledge base) by being more informed. Once my boxes are unpacked and my program is up and running, I'll be able to say that sound scientific information is indeed available, or at least under development, to address the food and environmental quality concerns as well as the agricultural production concerns of our citizens. But if the questions turn to politics, I'll say, much as Sergeant Joe Friday of Dragnet might have said, that I provide "Just the facts!"

Dr. Vincent Hebert is the new Analytical Chemist at WSU's Food and Environmental Quality Lab. Once his boxes are unpacked, he can be reached at or (509) 372-7393.

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Precision Ag Center Introduced at WSU

Dr. Joan R. Davenport, Soil Scientist, WSU

The most recent Washington State biennial budget included funding to both the University of Washington (UW) and Washington State University (WSU) for a program called the Advanced Technology Initiative (ATI). Included in the ATI were funds to WSU earmarked for the advancement of precision agriculture technologies, and to UW for efforts in precision forestry. This article explains how WSU has used its funding to establish a Center for Precision Agriculture Systems; UW's Precision Forestry Cooperative will be discussed in a forthcoming issue.

CPAS Established

ATI funds led to the establishment of the Center for Precision Agriculture Systems (CPAS) under the interim directorship of Dr. Denny Davis (WSU Department of Biosystems Engineering). Just as precision agriculture is a little different approach to farming (1, 2), CPAS began as a center that was a little different from others at WSU. Initially, CPAS could have been described as a "virtual center"--a center without a charter, a permanent director, or a physical home. One by one, we have chipped away at these items.

On April 13, 2000, the Washington State University Faculty Senate approved CPAS. The center now has a charter and is officially recognized as a center within the WSU system. The mission, goal, and objectives of CPAS are provided at the end of this article.

Initial Efforts

WSU involvement in precision agriculture began years before the Advanced Technology Initiative. In 1993, WSU-Prosser faculty members worked collaboratively with USDA/ARS scientists at Prosser developing yield monitoring equipment for potatoes. The project evolved over time to include partnerships with the agricultural industry in the Columbia Basin. Along a similar path, WSU-Prosser faculty developed a project on precision agriculture in grapes in the mid-1990s. The potato and grape projects continued to expand. Motorola became interested in developing technologies for precision agriculture and approached WSU because of the efforts already in place and the diversity of crops grown in Washington State. The arrival of the ATI funds further expanded the programs. Between Motorola and ATI funds for the center, the grape and potato projects have expanded to involve WSU faculty members in Prosser, Tri-Cities, and Pullman.

CPAS established a presence as a Pacific Northwest precision agriculture leader by sponsoring the Western Precision Agriculture Conference, held in Pasco February 15 and 16, 2000. The conference was well attended and hosted speakers from all around North America.

Leadership in Place

A key part of making CPAS a true center for precision agriculture is establishing strong leadership. A joint university-industry committee conducted a national search for the center's director. From a pool of sixteen applicants, three top candidates were interviewed. Dr. Francis J. Pierce, a soil scientist from Michigan State University who has long been active in precision agriculture, will be coming to WSU to serve as the Center Director in September 2000. Dr. Pierce plans to be active in precision agriculture research efforts and to participate in numerous outreach and administrative activities.

With a charter in place and a director on the way, CPAS is well on its way to being less of a virtual center and more of a tangible one. Dr. Pierce has chosen to locate the center at the WSU Irrigated Agriculture Research and Extension Center (IAREC) in Prosser.

Looking Ahead

A little more than a year after funding was made available, WSU's new Center for Precision Agriculture Systems has been established and is operational. The next steps will be to build on what CPAS has already started: conducting and supporting research to advance agricultural systems; being involved in outreach and educational activities to enhance training in and awareness of precision agriculture tools; and building relationships with the agricultural industry in the state of Washington. In partnership with the local agricultural industry, CPAS can continue to build Washington's role as a leader in precision agriculture.

Dr. Joan Davenport is an Assistant Professor and Soil Scientist at Washington State University's IAREC located in Prosser. She can be reached at (509) 786-2226 or

1. Davenport, J. R. 1998. Precision Agriculture: Futuristic farming may be closer than you think. Agrichemical and Environmental News 145:1-3. (BACK TO ARTICLE)
2. Pierce, F. J., and P. Nowak. 1999. Aspects of precision agriculture. Adv. Agron. 67:1-85. (BACK TO ARTICLE)

 Mission, Goal, and Objectives of the
Center for Precision Agricultural Systems (CPAS)


To foster collaborative research, education, and outreach programs that create practical technologies and management systems for precision agriculture. These systems:
(a) support competitive production of Washington's agricultural commodities,
(b) stimulate the state's economic development, and
(c) protect the region's environment and natural resources.


The goal of the center is to catalyze cooperative, interdisciplinary efforts for development and implementation of precision food production technologies that will consistently propel the industry, across the state and beyond, to markedly higher levels of product quality and profitability while maintaining sustainability and embodying social responsibility. Center efforts will create knowledge, management strategies, and technologies that support precise control of food production-from breeding through nurturing and harvest, storage and processing, and delivery to the consumer. An important part of the center's goal is to enhance traditional agricultural businesses and to stimulate new businesses and economic development supporting precision agricultural systems. New business opportunities will be created in agricultural and processing equipment, electronic sensors, software, and agronomic consulting arenas. Precision food production technologies will open a new era of food production and consumer protection, perhaps as significant worldwide as the green revolution of the past generation.


The center's objectives are intended to create and implement a wide variety of research-based and information-intensive technologies needed for precision agricultural systems. Six specific objectives define important elements of the technology development process:

  1. Definition of requirements (multi-disciplinary) for viable solutions to important agricultural system problems.
  2. Identification and origination of concepts useful to development of selected precision agricultural technologies and systems.
  3. Synthesis and development of concepts into usable technologies that meet stated system requirements.
  4. Implementation, testing, validation, and refinement of technological products in production agricultural systems.
  5. Facilitation of technology transfer to support commercial production of new precision agricultural technologies.
  6. Development of educational programs that support adoption and successful use of precision food production technologies.

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Food Safety Conference Teems with Information

Sally O'Neal Coates, Editor of Research Publications, WSU

Day Two, Part Two

The eighth Food Safety: Farm to Table Conference was held May 16 and 17, 2000, in Moscow, Idaho. Sponsored by the cooperative extension systems of Washington State University (WSU) and University of Idaho (UI), the conference brings together representatives of academia, industry, and government for an annual look at current issues in food safety. Last month, we covered Day One of the conference, featuring topics including food safety in produce, antimicrobial use in livestock, control of Listeria at the packing plant, and tracking foodborne illness outbreaks. This month, we cover Day Two.

Matters Manurial

Dr. Sandy McCurdy, Extension Food Safety Specialist with UI, introduced the first speaker of the second morning. Vicki Bess, President of BBC Labs, an independent microbiology lab, spoke about reduction of pathogens in compost and manure.

Bess first gave a primer on compost, showing slides and explaining how compost differs from mulch, manure, and other substances in that it has been biologically digested to stabilize nutrients and to kill pathogens and weed seeds. Key to this process is the heat naturally produced by a correct composting operation.

Pathogens in compost, explained Bess, are a function of the level of pathogens present in the source (potentially pathogenic sources include sewage sludge, animal manure, municipal solid waste, and green waste) and the source material's response to the mechanisms of pathogen destruction in the composting process. These mechanisms include competition, antibiosis, and, of course, heat. An accepted heat standard for pathogen control is 131°F for fifteen consecutive days in windrow composting. For good weed seed kill, Bess recommends higher temperatures (140°F to 150°F) in the West. (See Three Composting Styles sidebar, below.)

For pathogen reduction in manure (as opposed to compost), again the source composition must be considered. Air drying aids in reduction, but the pathogens can be very persistent. Cornell University is currently exploring the addition of sodium carbonate, but the jury is still out on its effectiveness.

 Three Composting Styles
Pros and Cons

The most common style of composting, the windrow method-essentially leaving the composting material in a long, mounded row-involves a great deal of turning. It takes longer than mechanical methods and has potential to re-inoculate the compost with pathogens at the time of turning. Pathogens can be reduced by more frequent turning.

Composting in a large, static pile (with or without forced aeration) is inexpensive, because no turning is required, but the coolest areas of the pile take a long time to reach optimum temperature.

While quite effective, this method is expensive. Typically, it takes place in a closed vessel.

It's a Small Planet After All

Next, Dr. Steven Harper, Director of Research and Development at Small Planet Foods, gave an update on U.S. organic regulations and standards.

National organic regulations were first proposed in 1997. After a considerable amount of wrangling and dissention in the ranks, a revised set of federal organic regulations was proposed on March 13, 2000. The comment period for these proposed regulations closed June 12, 2000. Revised regulations, taking comments into account, could be made public as soon as September, 2000. Congress then has a sixty-day veto period, after which the proposed regulations may become law. Roughly speaking, this could occur as soon as the end of this calendar year.

The March proposal reflected a number of consumer-driven "hot-button" issues including the exclusion from "organic" designation of genetically modified (GM) crops, products treated with sewage or biosludge, and irradiated products. The proposal also included lists of allowed synthetic and prohibited natural substances with respect to production, processing, and livestock. It provided for state and private certifiers to conduct annual reviews of growers and processors, and gave certifiers the right to de-certify.

For a plant product to be certified organic, no prohibited substances may have been used on that land for three years prior to the subject harvest. Livestock for slaughter must be organically raised from birth, whereas livestock for milk production must be under organic management for one year. Organic management excludes use of hormones and antibiotics. (Future concerns may include standards for wild-caught fish and organic aquaculture.)

Four different labels will be used on processed foods under the proposed regulations:

Note that the federal organic standards apply to product production processes, not measurable properties of the resulting product. Certifiers will be auditing practices, not testing content.

More information on organic standards can be found on the Internet at,, and

Food Safety Regulation Update

Dr. Barbara Rasco of WSU's Food Science and Human Nutrition Department presented an update on U.S. food safety regulations. While GM crops weren't on the agenda until the afternoon session, this highly topical issue had been rearing its head throughout the morning, and continued to dominate in this presentation. Dr. Rasco discussed the widely divided public perception of transgenics, sharing "urban myth" anecdotes from the United Kingdom-a leading nation in GM fearmongering. The outright untruths in European supermarkets and the over-the-top consumer reactions incited a great deal of eye-rolling and groaning amongst conference participants. Science-based or not, current perception and policy trends seem to be leading toward increased regulatory oversight of GM crops, labeling of products containing GM ingredients, and segregation of GM-containing from GM-free products. Such regulation may well prove a nightmare to implement and enforce, and is already causing economic fallout in the areas of insurance, finance, law, and transportation.

While many regulations make life tough for agricultural producers, others are designed to protect them. Laws are being enacted, for example, to provide recourse for victims of agricultural terrorism, whether that terrorism takes the form of physical crop sabotage or disinformation dispersal. Verbal attacks (both intentional, like the Alar scare, and inadvertent, such as Oprah Winfrey's mad cow disease comments) have led to the evolution of "veggie libel laws," which hold that free speech must be correct speech, shifting the burden of proof to the complainant when food is alleged unsafe.

Dr. Rasco's powerful and fast-paced presentation imparted a great deal of information, raised a number of controversial issues, and was certainly a better pre-lunch choice than last year's Yersinia-related pig disembowelment slides.

Putting Biotech in Perspective

In the afternoon, Dr. Alan McCurdy, WSU Chair of Food Science and Human Nutrition, kicked off the official biotechnology segment of the conference by introducing Dr. James Cook. Dr. Cook, a plant pathologist and member of the National Academy of Sciences, holds an Endowed Chair in Wheat Research at WSU. He put things in perspective by reminding us that biotechnology is a very old science-it's simply the use of biological systems to achieve specific ends, as is done in winemaking and cheesemaking. The evolution of applied genetics to production agriculture is, in his view, a natural one.

Of course, Dr. Cook was preaching to the choir--or at least a very sympathetic congregation--when he enumerated potential benefits of GM crops, including:

As Dr. Cook elegantly outlined some of the beneficial properties that can be conferred upon crops through application of GM technology-broad-spectrum herbicide resistance, insecticidal properties, virus resistance, enhanced nutrition-it seemed impossible to deny the benefits. Yet, an hour earlier, as Dr. Rasco presented the tidal wave of public pressure against GM crops, it seemed impossible to envision a near future when these many benefits would be embraced by the public.

But...Is It Safe?

Dr. Stephen Taylor, head of the Food Science and Technology Department at the University of Nebraska, addressed the safety of bioengineered food products. He became involved in the study of splicing Brazil nut genes into soybeans because of his background in food allergies. Giving detailed examples of this project and others, Dr. Taylor exploded the myth that "no testing takes place" on transgenics. As Dr. Allan Felsot has explained so eloquently in these pages (see his "Insecticidal Genes" series in AENews Nos. 167-170), extensive safety assessment has taken place on every GM crop and testing is ongoing.

Dr. Taylor detailed the three phases of the U.S. safety assessment process: Phase One, assessment of the gene and crop themselves; Phase Two, a detailed look at biological and agronomic equivalence; and Phase Three, assessment of the product in its food, feed, and environmental applications. He broke each phase into subcomponents, offering examples of actual test results on a variety of products. He pointed out the many pitfalls in conducting rigorous science and communicating it to a cynical public, and the difficulty in shedding light on bad science. The inherent "Catch-22" is the fact that you can prove non-safety, but you can't prove safety.

Many Issues in Just Two Days

A tremendous amount of ground was covered at this two-day conference. As with any good forum on science and policy, it raised more questions than it answered. In the end, several things were clear. For one, GM crops are controversial, and that controversy is not going away quickly or easily. Two, most of the conference's distinguished presenters had mastered Microsoft PowerPoint, a claim that could not be made in 1999. And three, most conference attendees learned a new word ("manurial"), though one we're not likely to toss around at cocktail parties.

Those wishing further information on the 2000 Food Safety: Farm to Table Conference can contact Conference Co-Chair Carolyn Bohach at (208) 885-5906 or or committee member Val Hillers at (509) 335-2970 or

Sally O'Neal Coates is the Editor of Agrichemical and Environmental News. She can be reached at or (509) 372-7378.

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Regulating Herbicide Tolerant Plants

Dr. Allan S. Felsot, Environmental Toxicologist, WSU

The following is excerpted from an upcoming AENews article by Dr. Felsot on crops genetically engineered for herbicide tolerance. Watch for "Herbicide Tolerant Genes," Parts 1, 2, and 3, in future issues beginning in September.

One of the most common complaints about transgenic crop technology stems from the perception that little safety testing was done prior to commercial release of the engineered cultivars. In fact, the risks of genetically engineered herbicide tolerance were assessed by three federal regulatory agencies, APHIS (USDA Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service), FDA (Food & Drug Administration), and EPA (Environmental Protection Agency). Although APHIS, FDA, and EPA consult with one another, each plays a distinct role in regulating transgenic crops and other biotechnology products.

APHIS is charged by the Federal Plant Pest Act and the Plant Quarantine Act with ensuring that new crops or other organisms do not become agricultural pests when they are released into the field. Companies developing new products or importing biological control organisms, for example, must convince APHIS that the novel introductions will not have adverse agricultural impacts. These companies must show how the organisms will be contained in the testing process and after introduction into production systems. After assessing available data about the organism--in this case, the transgenic crop--APHIS determines whether further regulation is required (1).

Under authority of Section 402 of the Federal Food Drug and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA), the FDA regulates foods for natural toxins (e.g., solanine levels in potatoes) and unavoidable contaminants (e.g., mercury, lead, dioxins). Under the Food Additive Amendment to the FFDCA (Section 409), the FDA also can regulate intentionally added substances that could make the food injurious. The FDA considers section 409 of the FFDCA to give it authority to treat the gene products (i.e., proteins) from genetically modified food organisms as food additives. Whether invoking section 402 or 409, the FDA requires the manufacturer to show that a new food is unlikely to cause harm. For transgenic crops, the manufacturer must show the new crop is substantially equivalent to the old crop (2).

EPA derives its authority from FIFRA (Federal Insecticide, Fungicide and Rodenticide Act) to regulate pest control substances, including transgenic crops that produce a pest control effect. The gene product of a transgenic crop with pesticidal properties is treated as a pesticide residue and thus regulated under Section 408 of the FFDCA as amended by the Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996. EPA decides whether a tolerance is needed for residues appearing in the harvested crop or if residues can be exempted. In all cases, the legislative mandate behind regulation is a reasonable certainty that no human or environmental harm would accrue from exposure to a chemical in the crop or from deployment of the pest control technology. In the case of herbicide tolerant crops such as Roundup Ready products, the protein produced from the genetic engineering process is not pesticidal, therefore EPA did not need to establish a tolerance. Thus, APHIS and FDA shared the main responsibility for approving field trials of herbicide tolerant crops and safety of consuming the harvested commodity. However, because glyphosate (Roundup) would be used in fields while crops were growing, EPA had to assess the safety of the glyphosate residue tolerance and approve label changes.

Dr. Allan S. Felsot is an Environmental Toxicologist with WSU's Food and Environmental Quality Lab (FEQL), and a frequent contributor to this newsletter. He can be reached at or (509) 372-7365.

1. Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. 2000. Petitions of nonregulated status granted by APHIS as of 5-15-2000. http://www.aphis/ (GO BACK)
2. Food and Drug Administration. 1992. Statement of policy: foods derived from new plant varieties. Federal Register 52(104):22984-23005. (GO BACK)

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HRH QBL Speaks Out

Non-Anom Nominees

Jane M. Thomas, Pesticide Notification Network Coordinator, WSU

In an ongoing effort to force a job offer from the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), Her Royal Highness The Queen Bee of Labels (HRH QBL, a.k.a. WSU's Jane M. Thomas) takes time out of her busy Royal Schedule periodically to point out oddities and aggravations on pesticide labels. It is the QBL's Opinion Most High that if she were in charge of all things label, a few RULES, combined with swift and thorough consequences for transgressors, would whip the whole pesticide label business into shape in a matter of weeks. Until such time as EPA sees the light and appoints HRH QBL to her rightful position, The Queen shall content herself with commentary, including nominations for the Non-Anom Awards, a new industry standard for particularly pathetic, aggrievedly awful, and terribly tacky pesticide labels. For background on this ongoing saga, see "If I Were the Queen of Labels," AENews No. 169, May 2000. For details on the Non-Anoms, see "QBL II," AENews No. 171, July 2000.

Alas, the file cabinets at the Pesticide Information Center at Washington State University indeed contain a treasure trove of potential "Non-Anom" award winners. Following are but two of the pearls of profundity that crossed my desk this month. Sound the trumpets, please!

First, in the Most Glaring Error category, is Pace International's Deadline-40 label. It contains the following language in the use directions: "Seed Grasses: alfalfa, clover, flowers, grasses and vegetables grown for seed." Now, why would a registrant include flowers and vegetables in a listing of seed grasses? A quick Royal Inquisition revealed that the label should have read "seed crops" not "seed grasses." What was EPA thinking when they saw seed grasses followed by flowers and vegetables? Speaking of grassesmethinks someone in the loop is, indeed, inhaling.

The second entrant this month comes under the Most Confusing Language category. It's an entry shared by two: Regal Chemical Company's Systec 1998 and Systec 1998 WDG labels. Both contain the following wording under the use directions for "Ornamentals (Field and Greenhouse)": "may be used to control the listed diseases on noncommercial bearingfruit trees." One wonders how bearing fruit trees could be included as a field and/or greenhouse ornamental. In a state of high(ness) confusion, HRH The QBL called the registrant and was informed that this language was intended to allow use on homeowner fruit trees. Under "Ornamentals (Field and Greenhouse)?" We don't think so. Maybe in Georgia, but that's not the way it is in Washington! Here ornamental is ornamental and bearing is bearing and ne'er the twain shall meet.

Watch future issues of AENews for more Non-Anom nominations and feel free to submit your favorites to HRH The QBL at

 For those readers new to these pages, "Non-Anom" is short for "Non-Anomaly." When the QBL first began pointing out breathtakingly queer labels, she considered calling them "Label Anomalies." But since "anomaly" is defined as "a departure from the regular arrangement, general rule, or regular practice," and the QBL holds that pesticide labels seem to follow NO general rules or practices, she has dubbed this dubious distinction "Non-Anomaly," or "Non-Anom."

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Pesticide Applicator Training

Washington State University offers PRE-LICENSE courses (for those who do not have a license and need one) and RECERTIFICATION courses (for those who need to renew their current licenses). Fees are $35 per day if postmarked 14 days before the program, otherwise $50 per day. This fee DOES NOT include WSDA license test fee, which ranges from $25 to $170; for information on testing and fees, contact WSDA at (360) 902-2020 or Recertification courses offer 6 credits per day.


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Dear Aggie

Providing answers to the questions you didn't know you wanted to ask

In contrast to the usually more sober contributors to the Agrichemical and Environmental News, Dear Aggie deals light-heartedly with the peculiarities that cross our paths and helps decipher the enigmatic and clarify the obscure. Questions may be e-mailed to Dear Aggie at Opinions are Aggie's and do not reflect those of WSU.

Dear Aggie,

I recently heard about several neighborhood pets being accidentally poisoned by strychnine. As the owner of the world's sweetest 100-pound, free-range dog, I am concerned that my dog may be poisoned by someone trying to control gophers in the neighborhood. Is strychnine readily available to homeowners?

Since I don't want anyone to know that I am so irresponsible as to let my pooch wander the neighborhood, please just sign me--

Petrified Pet Owner.


Dear Pet-Rified,

There is an interesting story to tell about strychnine. Most commercial strychnine poisons are federally designated as restricted-use pesticides (a.k.a. RUPs) and are labeled as such. In Washington State, strychnine is also listed in WAC 16-228-1230 (2) as a state restricted-use product. Thus, distribution, sale, and use of all strychnine should be limited. However, Section 3 of WAC 16-228-1230 states that the state restricted-use requirements do not apply to home and garden products. In fact, there are several home and garden strychnine products currently registered for use in Washington and not federally designated as RUPs. This matter was recently brought to WSDA's attention, and efforts are underway to change the regulations. In the meantime, your neighbor may lawfully put your pet at risk. And, sorry to be the one to break the news, but none of the proposed regulations address your neighbor's ability to purchase strychnine products in bordering states or over the Internet. So put that in your trap and bait it.

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Federal Register Excerpts

In reviewing the June postings in the Federal Register, we found the following items that may be of interest to the readers of Agrichemical and Environmental News.

In the June 1 Federal Register, EPA published a guidance document on applying data requirements for the establishment or continuance of tolerances for pesticide residues in or on imported foods. EPA is soliciting input on the guidance put forth in this notice. (Page 35069)

In the June 2 Federal Register, EPA announced its proposal to revoke tolerances for methyl parathion on: apples, artichokes, beets (greens alone), beets (with or without tops), birdsfoot trefoil forage, birdsfoot trefoil hay, broccoli, Brussels sprouts, carrots, cauliflower, celery, cherries, collards, grapes, kale, lentils, kohlrabi, lettuce, mustard greens, nectarines, peaches, pears, plums (fresh prunes), rutabagas (with or without tops), rutabaga tops, spinach, tomatoes, turnips (with or without tops), turnip greens, leafy Brassica vegetables (cole), and vetch. In addition, EPA proposes to amend the tolerances for beans peas to cover the dried commodities only. (Note that methyl parathion may still be used on lentils. Residues on lentils are covered by the tolerance for peas, dried.) Comments on this proposed action were to have been submitted to EPA on or before August 1, 2000. (Page 35307)

In the June 7 Federal Register, EPA announced that it had received a request from Roses, Inc. (who represents rose growers throughout the US) for an exemption from some of the restricted entry provisions of the Worker Protection Standards for rose harvesters. This exemption would allow harvesters to enter greenhouses to cut roses before the REIs have expired. This request is for a five year exemption and is similar to an earlier exemption granted by EPA that was in effect from 12/8/96 to 10/4/99. Comments on this request must be submitted to EPA on or before August 7, 2000. (Page 36134)

In the June 14 Federal Register, EPA announced that the revised risk assessment and related documents for dicrotophos are available for review and comment. Comments should be submitted to EPA on or before August 14. These documents are available on the Internet at (Page 37371)

In the June 22 Federal Register, EPA issued a final rule revising the tolerances for azinphos-methyl by revoking specific tolerances and modifying specific other tolerances. The changes presented in this final rule become effective September 20, 2000. With this action EPA has done the following: Revoked the tolerances for sugarcane; apricots; artichokes; barley, grain; barley, straw; beans (dry); gooseberries; grass, pasture (green); grass, pasture, hay; kiwi fruit; oats, grain; oats, straw; peas, black-eyed; rye, grain; rye, straw; soybeans; wheat, grain; wheat, straw; pomegranates; sugarcane bagasse; citrus pulp, dried; and soybean oil. EPA also revoked 13 meat, milk, poultry and egg (MMPE) tolerances and is removing the tolerance for nectarines because its is covered by the tolerance for peaches. EPA has also reduced several tolerances as follows: apples, crabapples, pears, and quinces from 2.0 ppm to 1.5 ppm; cranberries from 2.0 ppm to 0.5 ppm; grapes from 5.0 ppm to 4.0 ppm; and potatoes from 0.3 to 0.2 ppm. (Page 38748)

In the June 23 Federal Register, EPA announced that the revised version of the pesticide science policy document entitled "Guidance for Refining Anticipated Residue Estimates For Use in Acute Dietary Probabilistic Risk Assessment" is now available. EPA has also incorporated into this document two other policy documents that were previously issued for public comment: "Guidance for the Conduct of Bridging Studies for Use in Acute Dietary Probabilistic Risk Assessment" and "Guidance for the Conduct of Residue Decline Studies for Use in Acute Dietary Probabilistic Risk Assessment." An electronic copy of this document is available on the web at the following URL: (Page 39147)

In the June 28 Federal Register, EPA announced that the preliminary human health and ecological risk assessments were available for oxamyl, tri-allate, and etridiazole (terrazole). There is no formal comment period for these risk assessment documents; however, EPA has indicated that comments submitted within the next 30 days will most likely be considered. These documents are on the Internet at (Page 39898)

In the June 30 Federal register, EPA announced that it was soliciting comments on the pesticide draft science policy paper "Proposed Guidance on Cumulative Risk Assessment of Pesticide Chemicals That Have a Common Mechanism of Toxicity." Comments on this document must be submitted to EPA on or before August 28, 2000. Electronically, this document is available under the Science Policies information at URL: (Page 40644)

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PNN Update

The PNN is operated by WSU's Pesticide Information Center for the Washington State Commission on Pesticide Registration. The system is designed to distribute pesticide registration and label change information to groups representing Washington's pesticide users. PNN notifications are now available on our web page. To review those sent out in the month two months prior to this issue's date, either access the PNN page via the Pesticide Information Center On-Line (PICOL) Main Page on URL or directly via URL We hope that this new electronic format will be useful. Please let us know what you think by submitting comments via e-mail to Jane Thomas at

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2000 Pesticide Container Recycling

Washington Pest Consultants Association organizes an annual series of collection dates and sites for empty pesticide containers. Dates and locations are subject to change; it may be wise to confirm with a telephone call before participating. Contact telephone numbers for specific events are given in the table below. For general questions, or if you are interested in hosting an event at your farm, business, or in a central location in your area, contact Northwest Ag Plastics representative Clarke Brown at (509) 965-6809 or David Brown at (509) 469-2550 or More information on pesticide waste and container recycling is available on the WSU Pesticide and Environmental Stewardship site.


Aug. 1 8a-11a St John McGregor's Rick Bafus (509) 648-3218
2p-4p Mockonema McGregor's Dale Deerkop (509) 635-1591
Aug. 2 8a-11a Garfield Cascade Flying Service Doran Rogers (509) 635-1212
1p-4p Palouse Dale's Flying Service Dale Schoeflin (509) 878-1531
Aug. 3 8a-10a Pullman McGregor's Larry Schlenker (509) 332-2551
1p-3p Dusty Dusty Farm Co-Op Inc. John Stoner (509) 397-3111
Aug. 4 8a-11a Clarkston Valley Helo Service James D. Pope (509) 758-1900
1p-3p Pomeroy McGregor's Mark Welter (509) 843-1468
Aug. 8 8a-11a Dayton McGregor's Doug Wendt (509) 382-4704
1p-4p Waitsburg McGregor's Terry Jacoy (509) 337-6621
Aug. 9 8a-11a Eltopia Wilbur Ellis Vern Record (509) 297-4304
1p-3p Pasco Pfister Crop Care Steve Pfister (509) 297-4304
4p-5p Pasco, Kahlotus Rd. Air Trac Gerald Titus (509) 547-5301
Aug. 10 8a-10a Eltopia Eastern Wa Spray Service Willis Maxson (509) 297-4387
11a-2p Connell B&R Crop Care Chris Eskildsen (509) 234-7791
4p-6p Othello B&H Ag Chemical Larry Hawley (509) 488-6576
Aug. 11 8a-11a Othello Airport Conner Flying Inc. Mark Conner (509) 488-2921
2p-5p Moses Lake Moses Lake Air Service Perry Davis (509) 765-7689
Aug. 14 8a-11a Quincy Wilbur Ellis Dale Martin (509) 787-4433
1p-3p Quincy Quincy Flying Service Richard Weaver (509) 787-3223
Aug. 15 8a-10a Royal City Cenex Ted Freeman (509) 346-2213
11a-1p Royal City Saddle Mountain Mike Pack (509) 346-2291
2p-5p Mattawa Wilbur Ellis Al Hilliker (509) 932-4988
Aug. 16 8a-11a Ephrata The Crop Duster Martin Shaw (509) 754-3461
1p-3p White Trail The Crop Duster Martin Shaw (509) 754-3461
Aug. 21 8a-11a Toppenish Western Farm Service Steve Laws (509) 865-2045
1p-4p Harrah Husch & Husch Allen Husch (509) 848-2951
Aug. 22 8a-11a Cowiche D&M Chemical Dee Gargus (509) 678-5750
Sept. 5 8a-11a Chelan Northwest Wholesale Herb Teas (509) 662-2141
Sept. 6 8a-11a WenatcheeTree Fruit Stn. Fieldmen's Assoc. Floyd Stutzman (509) 669-0420
Sept. 11 9a-11a St John Gossard Aviation Inc. Wesley Gossard (509) 648-3722
1p-3p Pine City Reed Aviation Pete Reed (509) 523-3950
Sept. 12 8a-10a Warden Kilmer Crop Dusting Terry Kilmer (509) 349-2491
11a-1p Bruce Simplot Chuck Spytex (509) 488-2132
3p-5p Othello South Saddle Orchard Mike Macy (509) 539-5836
Sept. 14 8a-11a Zillah Bleyhl Farm Service Ray Oversby (509) 829-6922
Oct. 3 9a-10a Ellensburg DOT Susanne Tarr (509) 962-7577
Oct. 13 8a-3p Othello Conner Flying Inc. Mark Conner (509) 488-2921
Oct. 16 8a-10a Waterville Western Farm Service Dale Gromley (509) 745-8857
11a-2p Coulee City Western Farm Service Pete Thiry (509) 632-5697
3p-5p Ephrata The Crop Duster Martin Shaw (509) 754-3461
Oct. 17 8a-11a Wilbur Airport Greg's Crop Care Greg Leyva (509) 647-2441
1p-4p Davenport Airport Northwest Aviation Inc. Lee Swain (509) 725-0011
Oct. 18 8a-Noon Rosalia Western Farm Service John Hartley (509) 523-6811
1p-3p Mockonema McGregor's Dale Deerkop (509) 635-1591
Oct. 19 8a-10a Connell B&R Aerial Crop Care Chris Eskildsen (509) 234-7791
1p-3p Pasco, Kahlotus Rd. Air Trac Gerald Titus (509) 547-5301
Oct. 23 8a-10a Spokane
222 N Havana
WSDA Tim Schultz (509) 533-2690
WSU Jim Lindstrom (509) 533-2686
11a-1p Mead Cenex Todd Race (509) 466-5192
3p-5p Deer Park Inland Agronomy Jim McAdams (509) 276-2611
Oct. 26 9a-Noon Coulee City Cenex Huck Dilling (509) 632-5292
1p-3p Almira Cenex Don Felker (509) 639-2421
Oct. 27 8a-Noon Moses Lake Tom Dent Aviation Tom Dent (509) 765-6926
2p-5p Warden Kilmer Crop Dusting Terry Kilmer (509) 349-2491
Oct. 30 9a-3p Outlook Snipes Mtn. Trans. Stn. Mark Nedrow (509) 574-2472
Oct. 31 8:30a-3p Yakima Terrace Hts. Landfill Mark Nedrow (509) 574-2472

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Tolerance Information

Chemical Type Federal Register Tolerance (ppm) Commodity (raw)


New/ Extension

Exp. Date
imidacloprid (insecticide) 6/8/00 pg. 36367 3.5 prunes Yes New 12/31/01
1 stone fruit (Crop Group 12)
Comment: These tolerances are being established in response to EPA granting Section 18 emergency exemptions for the use of imidacloprid for aphid control in Pennsylvania, West Virginia, New York, and New Jersey.
cyprodinil (fungicide) 6/12/00 pg. 36790 5 strawberries Yes Extension 5/31/01
Comment: This time-limited tolerance is being extended in response to EPA again granting a Section 18 emergency exemption for the use of cyprodinil to control gray mold on South Carolina strawberries.
cloquintocet-mexyl (herbicide safener) 6/22/00 pg. 38757 0.1 wheat; grain & forage No N/A N/A
0.1 wheat; hay & straw
clodinafop-propargyl (herbicide) 6/22/00 pg. 38765 0.5 wheat; straw No N/A N/A
0.1 wheat; grain, forage, & hay
prallethrin (insecticide) 6/26/00 pg. 39304 1 see below No N/A N/A
This tolerance is for residues of prallethrin in or on all food items in food handling establishments where food and food products are held, processed, prepared, and/or served.

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Proposed IR-4 Projects for 2001

This table presents a condensed list of potential IR-4 projects already proposed for 2001. See related article at beginning of this electronic newsletter. The table is organized by chemistry group (fungicides, herbicides, insecticides), then by crop. Each chemistry group also includes a section labeled "Performance Trials." Where IR-4 historically looks at residue data, items in the Performance Trials section are requests for efficacy data (in the case of herbicides, performance trials look for phytotoxicity). Any questions may be addressed to IR-4 State Representative Liaison Dr. Douglas B. Walsh at




Control Spectrum


fludioxonil apple Penicillium expansum, P. solitum, Botrytis cinerea, Pezicula malicorticis WA
fenhexamid apple (post harvest) gray mold CA
imazalil apricot (post harvest) brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest) SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY
cyprodinil + fludioxonil asparagus Stemphylium purple spot MI
cyprodinil + fludioxonil bean (dry) white & gray molds NY
trifloxystrobin bean (dry) white & gray molds NY
cyprodinil + fludioxonil bean (lima) white & gray molds NY
dimethomorph bean (lima) downy mildew, Phytophthora phaesoli DE, ON, BC
propamocarb-hcl bean (lima) downy mildew, Phytophthora phaesoli DE
cyprodinil + fludioxonil bean (snap) white & gray molds NY
fluazinam bean (snap) white & gray molds NY
trifloxystrobin bean (snap) white & gray molds NY
harpin blueberry mummyberry, Botrytis, Alternaria MI
tebuconazole blueberry rust, Septoria leaf spots FL, SC
dimethomorph broccoli downy mildew AZ, TN, CA,
fenhexamid broccoli gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea WA
zoxamide broccoli Peronospora parasitica (downy mildew) AZ
dimethomorph cabbage downy mildew OR, TN, CA
azoxystrobin cabbage, chinese powdery mildew TX
myclobutanil cabbage, chinese powdery mildew TX
harpin caneberry mummyberry, Botrytis, Alternaria MI
ferbam caneberry (blackberry) blossom, foliar stem diseases SC, AL, MS, NC, OR, SC
mefenoxam + copper caneberry (raspberry) downy mildew WA, CA, OR
myclobutanil caneberry (raspberry) rust sp., powdery mildew VA, OH, TN, WV, WA, PA, OR, SC, GA
tebuconazole carrot Alternaria, Sclerotinia, Rhizoctonia NY
quinoxyfen cherry powdery mildew WA
imazalil cherry (post harvest) brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest) SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY
tebuconazole coriander Cercospora, powdery mildew TX
trifloxystrobin coriander Alternaria, Cercospora, powdery mildew TX
ferbam cranberry fruit rots, twig blight, fairy ring WI, MA, WA
cyprodinil + fludioxonil cucumber Alternaria leaf blights NC
fenhexamid cucumber gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea WA
chlorothalonil gingseng Alternaria blight, downy mildew NC, KY, TX, SC, WI, GA
fenhexamid gingseng Botrytis MI
acibenzolar grape downy mildew, leaf spot MI
dimethomorph grape Plasmopara (downy mildew) GA
ferbam grape black rot NY, OH, MI, MO, AR, SC, MS
famoxate + cymoxanil hops hop downy mildew WA
fosetyl-al hops Pseudoperonospora humuli WA
chlorothalonil lentil anthracnose, Ascochyta ND, WA, ID
cyprodinil + fludioxonil lettuce (head & leaf) Alternaria, Septoria, Botrytis, Sclerotinia FL, OR, OH
fenhexamid lettuce (head & leaf) gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea WA
myclobutanil lettuce (head & leaf) powdery mildew AZ, MI
zoxamide lettuce (head & leaf) Bremia lactucae (downy mildew) AZ, CA, WA
propiconazole mushroom diseases HQ
propiconazole mushroom competing fungi VA
imazalil nectarine (post harvest) brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest) SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY, GA
fenhexamid onion Botrytis TX, MI
trifloxystrobin onion Botrytis & Alternaria foliar blights MI
cyprodinil + fludioxonil onion (green & dry bulb) Botrytis, Alternaria, Sclerotinia TX
azoxystrobin parsley Alternaria, Septoria FL, OR, TX
cyprodinil + fludioxonil parsley Alternaria, Septoria FL, OR, OH
myclobutanil parsley powdery mildew TX
tebuconazole parsley powdery mildew, Alternaria leaf spot TX
trifloxystrobin parsley Alternaria, Cercospora, powdery mildew TX
hymexazol pea (succulent) common root rot MN
imazalil peach (post harvest) brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest) SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY, GA
sodium tetrathiocarbonate pear oak root fungus, nematodes, general soil replant problems CA
fenhexamid pear (post harvest) gray mold CA, WA
ferbam plum cherry leafspot, brown rot SC, MI
imazalil plum (post harvest) brown rot, Botrytis rot (post harvest) SC, NJ, IL, AL, TX, OK, NY, GA
PCNB radish scab, clubroot NC,MI, VA, OK, SC, OR
chlorothalonil rhubarb Ramularia leaf & stalk spot WA, OR
BAS 500 spinach CA, OR
mefenoxam spinach white rust TX, SC, CA, TN, OK
zoxamide spinach white rust, downy mildew TX, TN, CA, OH, NJ, NC, CO
cyprodinil + fludioxonil squash Alternaria leaf blights NC
fenhexamid squash gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea WA
zoxamide squash Phytophthora MI
quinoxyfen squash (winter) powdery mildew NC
acibenzolar strawberry downy mildew, leaf spot MI
cyprodinil + fludioxonil strawberry Botrytis, Colletotrichum GA, SC, OR, CA, MI, NY, TN, NC, CT
harpin strawberry leaf spot, Botrytis MI
iodomethane strawberry fumigant treatment CA
fenhexamid tomato Botrytis MI, CA, WA
fenhexamid tomato gray mold, Botrytis blight, Botrytis cinerea WA
mefenoxam turnip (roots & tops) Phytophthora TN, GA

Performance Trials (Fungicides)
azoxystrobin asparagus Stemphylium purple spot MI
fludioxonil asparagus Fusarium crown and root rot MI
propamocarb-hcl bean Pythium root rot WA, OR
azoxystrobin blueberry mummyberry, Alternaria fruit rot, Phomopsis stem canker, anthracnose fruit MI, SC, GA, IN, OR, DE, NC
kresoxim-methyl blueberry Alternaria fruit rot, Botrytis, Phomopsis, mummyberry MI, SC, GA, IN, NC
serenade blueberry Alternaria, Botrytis OR, MI
azoxystrobin broccoli foliar diseases, downy mildew, Alternaria TX, OR
azoxystrobin cabbage foliar diseases, downy mildew, Alternaria TX, NY
azoxystrobin cabbage, chinese white rust CA
copper hydroxide cabbage, chinese white rust (albugo) HI
azoxystrobin caneberry (blackberry) many pathogens GA, SC, DE
kresoxim-methyl caneberry (blackberry) many pathogens GA, SC
azoxystrobin caneberry (raspberry) many pathogens GA, SC, DE
kresoxim-methyl caneberry (raspberry) many pathogens GA, SC
BAS 500 carrot Alternaria, Cercospora MI
sodium tetrathiocarbonate cherry nematodes, Phytophthora root rot, oak root fungus CA
acibenzolar coriander bacterial leaf spot FL, OR
azoxystrobin coriander Alternaria, Cercospora, powdery mildew TX
propiconazole coriander Alternaria, Cercospora TX
BAS 500 cucumber Phytophthora TN, MI
acibenzolar lettuce (head & leaf) bacterial leaf spot FL, OR, CA
azoxystrobin mint (fresh) Pythium, Rhizoctonia foliar blight FL
oxamyl mint (fresh) root lesion mint nematode FL
propiconazole mint (fresh) Rhizoctonia foliar blight FL
BAS 500 onion Alternaria, Botrytis, downy mildew MI
azoxystrobin pea (succulent) downy mildew, Phytophthora phaesoli, Colletotrichum HQ
propiconazole radish Septoria (early blight) CA, OR
BAS 500 squash Phytophthora TN, NC, MI
BAS 500 strawberry broad spectrum disease control TN
kresoxim-methyl strawberry Phomopsis, Septoria, Colletotrichum, Rhizoctonia, anthracnose GA, SC, NC
serenade strawberry Botrytis, bacterial leaf spot MI, OH, NC
chlorothalonil tomato Botrytis cinerea MI, GA, CA
kresoxim-methyl tomato Septoria & Alternaria foliar blights, fruit rots MI
azoxystrobin turnip (roots & tops) white rust TX, FL




Control Spectrum


bentazon apple yellow nutsedge VA, NC, NJ, NY
clethodim apple annual & perennial grasses CA, TN, CO, ID, NY
fluroxypyr apple woody perennial broadleaf weeds NC, SC, GA, WA, TN
halosulfuron apple nutsedge, broadleaf weeds NC
isoxaben apple weeds WA
sulfentrazone apple nutsedge, broadleaf weeds NC
pyridate asparagus broadleaf weeds WA
glyphosate bean (dry) desiccation & late season weed control to improve harvest efficiency WI, NY, WA, MI, ND, ID, SD
clethodim bean (lima) annual & perennial grasses FL, TN, NC, WA, MS
clethodim bean (snap) annual & perennial grasses NY, FL, PR, TN, AR, NC, OR, TX
azafenidin blueberry annual weeds MI, SC, NC, ME, OR, TN
clethodim blueberry annual & perennial grasses FL, AR, OR, WA, MS, GA, TN, ME, NY
metolachlor blueberry nutsedge OR, VA, OK, AR, NY, SC, NC, WA, MS
thiazopyr blueberry annual & perennial broadleaf weeds and crabgrass SC, NC, CA, TN
rimsulfuron blueberry (lowbush) weeds ME
clomazone broccoli annual weeds, velvet leaf WI, WA, OR, AR, GA, NC, KY, TN, VA, TX
metolachlor broccoli galinsoga, pineapple weed OR, NJ, NC, OK, NY, KY, TN, AR
sulfentrazone broccoli annual broadleaf weeds AZ
sethoxydim buckwheat annual grasses MN, ND, WA
metolachlor cabbage, chinese weeds OR, HI, OK, FL, MI
2, 4-D (amine) caneberry (raspberry) broadleaf weeds OR, VA, WA
clethodim caneberry (raspberry) grass weeds OR, WA, NY
glufosinate caneberry (raspberry) primocane suppression OR, WA
thiazopyr caneberry (raspberry) horseweed, fleabane, nutsedge CA, OR
glyphosate canola harvest aid/spot treatment ND, GA
glyphosate canola annual & perennial grass, broadleaf weeds ND
pendimethalin canola annual grass, broadleaf weeds ND, NM
thifensulfuron-methyl canola annual broadleaf weeds ND
clethodim cherry annual grasses CA, OR, ID, NY
clopyralid cherry Canada thistle, goldenrod, wild aster NJ, CA, OR, WA
2, 4-DB clover weeds OH, WA, GA, VA, NY, CA, NC
imazamox clover (seed) annual weeds CA
oxyfluorfen clover (seed) weeds CA, VA, WA, OR
glufosinate cranberry perennial weeds MA
nicosulfuron cranberry weeds MA
rimsulfuron cranberry asters, narrow-leaved goldenrod, buttercup, yellow loosestrife, yellow nutsedge MA
triclopyr cranberry woody perennial weeds MA
triflusulfuron-methyl cranberry buttercup, yellow loosestrife, lotus, silverleaf, aster, sedges MA
oxyfluorfen cucumber broadleaf weeds NY, TN, PR, AR
paraquat cucumber weeds NC, MI, FL, AR, CA, OK, NY, GA, TN
pyrithiobac cucumber broadleaf & grassy weeds TX
sethoxydim cucumber annual grasses MD
halosulfuron grape nutsedge, broadleaf weeds NC
sulfentrazone grape nutsedge, broadleaf weeds NC
sethoxydim grasses annual & perennial grasses OR
norflurazon grasses (bermuda) crabgrass, goosegrass, broadleaf signal grass GA
clethodim grasses (fescue) reduce stem formation by killing the vernalized growing plant MO
terbacil grasses (seed) rattail fescue, downy brome, annual bluegrass, volunteer seedling OR
carfentrazone-ethyl hops weeds WA
oryzalin hops annual weeds WA
clethodim lettuce (head) annual & perennial weeds TX, CA
ethephon lettuce (head) inhibitor of head formations CA
glyphosate lettuce (head) weeds MI, OR
asulam mint annual grasses, common groundsel WA
ethalfluralin mint weeds WA
sulfentrazone mint weeds WA
flumioxazin onion annual weeds MI, CO, NY
dimethenamid-p onion (green) broadleaf weeds OR
clethodim pea (dry) annual & perennial grasses WA, OR
clomazone pea (dry) broadleaf & grassy weeds SD
MCPA pea (dry) weeds SD, MN, NY, WI, ND, MI, WA
sulfentrazone pea (dry) broadleaf weeds ND, SD
paraquat pea (pigeon) annual & perennial weeds FL
clethodim pea (succulent) annual & perennial grasses NY, FL, AR, TX, WA, OK
halosulfuron pea (succulent) broadleaf weeds NY
sulfentrazone pea (succulent) weeds NY, WI, IL, WA, GA, MS
clethodim peach annual grasses CA, TN, ID, NY
clopyralid peach Canada thistle, goldenrod, wild aster NJ, VA, CA, OR, NC, MS, WA
glyphosate peach weeds CA, NY
halosulfuron peach nutsedge, broadleaf weeds NC
sulfentrazone peach nutsedge, broadleaf weeds NC
clethodim pear annual & perennial grasses CA, ID, NY
fluroxypyr pear woody perennial broadleaf weeds NC, SC, GA, WA
clethodim plum grasses ID, NY
clopyralid plum Canada thistle, goldenrod, wild aster NJ, VA, CA, OR
halosulfuron potato broadleaf weeds NY, ID, TN, CA, CO, WA, FL
sulfentrazone potato broadleaf weeds ND, CO, NY
halosulfuron pumpkin nutsedge TN, IL, TX
pendimethalin pumpkin annual weeds TX
bensulide radish purslane, pigweed, lambsquarters, nettle weeds CA, OR, TN
dimethenamid-p radish broadleaf weeds OR
bensulide radish, oriental weeds CA
fluroxypyr spinach broadleaf weeds NJ
linuron spinach chickweed, winter annual broadleaf weeds MD, TX
dimethenamid-p squash annual grasses, pigweed, black nightshade, annual broadleaf weeds OR, ON, QC, BC
ethephon squash promote maturity TN, MA
oxyfluorfen squash (summer) broadleaf weeds NJ
paraquat squash (summer) weeds NC, FL, OR, NY, TN, OH, MS
pyrithiobac squash (summer) broadleaf & grass weeds TX
sulfentrazone squash (winter) nightshade, pigweed, lambsquarters weeds OR, IL
glyphosate strawberry weed control MD, WV, AR, CA, WA, OR, FL, LA, MI, MD, NH, NY
glyphosate strawberry weeds TN, NC, MI, TX
prohexadione calcium strawberry reduce runner growth & increase yield FL
2, 4-D (amine) strawberry (annual) broadleaf weeds NC
oxyfluorfen strawberry (annual) broadleaf weeds TN, OK, UT, OR, NC, VA, AR, FL
pendimethalin strawberry (annual) weeds CA
bensulide strawberry (perennial) broadleaf weeds NC
bromoxynil sweet corn broadleaf weeds WI, NY
oxyfluorfen sweet corn weeds CA
bensulide turnip (roots) weeds MD
dimethenamid-p turnip (roots) broadleaf weeds OR
paraquat watermelon weeds NC, WA, OR, NY, PR, TN, TX, AR
sethoxydim watermelon annual grasses MD, ON, BC

Performance Trials (Herbicides)
azafenidin asparagus weeds MI, NY
sulfentrazone bean (dry) early season weeds MN, ND
pyridate broccoli broadleaf weeds VA, WI, FL, TN
oxyfluorfen broccoli, chinese weeds FL, AZ
pyridate cabbage annual broadleaf weeds WI, VA
carfentrazone-ethyl cabbage broadleaf weeds TX
clopyralid cabbage, chinese broadleaf weeds NJ, NY
pendimethalin cabbage, chinese weeds, grasses TN, NY, ON, QC, BC
oxyfluorfen caneberry (blackberry) primocanes VA, CA
chlorimuron ethyl cranberry saw brier, white violet, aster MA, OR, WA
nicosulfuron cranberry weeds MA
rimsulfuron cranberry asters, narrow-leaved goldenrod, buttercup, yellow loosestrife, yellow nutsedge MA
triflusulfuron-methyl cranberry buttercup, yellow loosestrife, lotus, silverleaf, aster, sedges MA
sulfentrazone lentil broadleaf weeds ND, SD
sulfentrazone onion broadleaf weeds TX
carfentrazone-ethyl onion (dry bulb) broadleaf weeds TX
metolachlor parsley annual grasses, broadleaf weeds FL, TX, GA, MD
metolachlor pea (pigeon) weeds FL, AR
prometryn pea (pigeon) weeds FL
metribuzin pea (succulent) broadleaf & grass weeds NY, WA, OR, MS, WI
metolachlor pumpkin annual grasses, hairy galinsoga, yellow nutsedge, broadleaf weeds NY, MS, TN, GA, TX, ON, QC, BC
sulfentrazone pumpkin weeds, pigweed IL, MS, TX, GA, TN
metolachlor squash grasses, broadleaf weeds TX, QC, ON, BC
sulfentrazone strawberry annual weeds MI, CA, PA
triflusulfuron-methyl strawberry weeds CA
metolachlor turnip greens weeds AR, OR, TX, TN, CO
metolachlor turnip greens plantback restrictions TN, GA
halosulfuron watermelon nutsedge, broadleaf weeds AR, MD, NC, TX, TN




Control Spectrum


methoxyfenozide alfalfa beet armyworm, alfalfa caterpillar CA
spinosad alfalfa Lepidoptera larvae, beet worm, bollworm, alfalfa caterpillar TX
tebufenozide alfalfa Lepidoptera larvae TX
buprofezin apple scales TN, TX
fenpropathrin barley thrips, cereal leaf beetle, aphids ID
pymetrozine barley aphids ID
bifenthrin bean (dry) mites, lygus, Lepidoptera, aphids WA, CO, ID
cyromazine bean (dry) leafminers CA
zinc phosphide bean (dry) rodents, esp. mice OK, GA
cyromazine bean (snap) leafminers GA, TN, TX, FL, MS
methoxyfenozide bean (succulent) Lepidoptera larvae TN, OR
ethyl acetate beehives Africanized honey bees TX
para-dichlorobenzene beehives wax moth GA
tebufenpyrad beehives parasitic mites MD
fenpropathrin blueberry Japanese beetle, cranberry fruitworm, blueberry maggot, cherry fruitworm MI
thiamethoxam blueberry Japanese beetle, blueberry aphid, rose chafer MI
thiocloprid blueberry Japanese beetle, cranberry fruitworm, blueberry maggot, cherry fruitworm MI
endosulfan cabbage onion thrips, western flower thrips TX
naled cabbage diamondback caterpillar FL, NC, CA, DE, TX
pyriproxyfen cabbage onion thrips, western flower thrips TX
spinosad cabbage onion thrips, western flower thrips TX
imidacloprid caneberry aphid, whitefly, leafhopper CA, NC, WA, OR, PA
abamectin caneberry (raspberry) two spotted spider mites CA, SC, DE, NC, WA
bifenazate caneberry (raspberry) spider mites MI
endosulfan canola aphids, seed pod weevil, fleabeetle KY
phosmet canola cabbage seed pod weevil ID
methoxyfenozide carrot Lepidoptera larvae CO, OR, WA
bifenazate cherry European red mites, two spotted spider mites MI
buprofezin cherry San Jose scale CA
diflubenzuron cherry leafminers OR
thiamethoxam cherry plum curculio ID, OR, WA, WI, MI
thiocloprid cherry cherry fruitworm, cherry fruitfly, plum curculio MI
emamectin cranberry black headed fireworm, spotted fireworm, Sparganothis fruitworm MA
methoxychlor cranberry reregister RE
bifenazate cucumber two spotted spider mites NJ, TX, WI, ON, QC
emamectin cucumber pickleworm NC, TN
hydramethylnon grape ants CA
propylene grape insects CA
pyriproxyfen grape grape berry moth MI
methoxyfenozide grasses Lepidoptera larvae, fall armyworm, southern armyworm TN, FL, LA
pyrethrin + pbo grasses (pasture) mosquito (adult) CA
spinosad grasses (pasture) fire ants GA, TX
cyfluthrin grasses (timothy) armyworms CA
methoxyfenozide mint cutworms, loopers WA
pyridaben mint spider mites FL, ID, OR
dichlorvos mushroom reregister RE
methoxychlor mushroom reregister RE
pyriproxyfen onion (dry bulb) onion thrips, western flower thrips TX
thiamethoxam onion (dry bulb) soil-dwelling insects TX, WA, OH, OR, ID, CO
emamectin onion (green) beet armyworm, European corn borer, Lepidoptera larvae NJ
thiamethoxam onion (green) onion root maggots CA, OR, CO, NJ
pyridaben pea (blackeyed) thrips AR
bifenthrin pea (dry) stinkbug, beetle sp., Lepidoptera complex ID
methoxyfenozide pea (dry) Lepidoptera larvae WA, TN
methoxyfenozide pea (edible podded) Lepidoptera larvae TN
esfenvalerate pea (pigeon) pod borer PR
indoxacarb pea (southern) Lepidoptera larvae AR
pyriproxyfen pea (southern) thrips AR
methoxyfenozide pea (succulent shelled) Lepidoptera larvae HQ
dimethoate pea (succulent) aphids, leafminers, thrips WA, OR
buprofezin peach aphids, scales TN, CO
thiocloprid peach cherry fruitworm, cherry fruitfly, plum curculio MI
buprofezin pear scales TN, CO
buprofezin plum aphids, scales TN, CO
cyfluthrin + tebupirimphos potato wireworm NC, ID
cyfluthrin spinach Lepidoptera larvae, grasshoppers AR, OK
endosulfan spinach onion thrips, western flower thrips TX
bifenazate squash (summer) two spotted spider mites NJ, WI, TX
lambda-cyhalothrin strawberry adult root weevils WA
methoxyfenozide strawberry beet armyworm, cutworms, corn earworm CA, NC
methyl anthranilate strawberry bird repellent FL
buprofezin tomato whitefly VA
zinc phosphide turnip (roots & tops) rodents, esp. mice AR, GA, FL
methoxyfenozide turnip greens Lepidoptera larvae OK, CA
zeta cypermethrin turnip greens cabbage looper, diamondback moth caterpillar, beet armyworm, fall armyworm TX, GA, CA

Performance Trials (Insecticides)
imidacloprid blueberry (high bush) blueberry maggot MI
diflubenzuron broccoli Lepidoptera larvae GA, OR, TN
fipronil broccoli root maggots, fleabeetles NJ, OH, TX
thiamethoxam broccoli soil-dwelling insects TX
diflubenzuron cabbage Lepidoptera larvae GA
fipronil cabbage root maggots, fleabeetles NJ, OH, TX
thiamethoxam cabbage soil-dwelling insects TX, NY, TN, OR, CO
thiodicarb cabbage, chinese Lepidoptera, fleabeetles KY, CA
petroleum oils caneberry (blackberry) scales, mites, aphids GA, OR, MS, AR
petroleum oils caneberry (raspberry) scales, mites, aphids OR, GA, AR
fipronil carrot root maggots, fleabeetles NJ, OH, TX
thiamethoxam cucumber soil-dwelling insects TX
imidacloprid onion (dry bulb) onion maggot NY
endosulfan pea (pigeon) Heliothis pod borer, leafhopper FL
Beauveria bassiana potato wireworm TN
fipronil radish root maggots, fleabeetles NJ, OH, TX
thiamethoxam spinach soil-dwelling insects OK, TX
thiamethoxam squash (summer) soil-dwelling insects TX
abamectin tomato root-knot nematodes VA
thiamethoxam watermelon soil-dwelling insects TX


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